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Mxit formal llmucrsiftj 




Outlines of Work 


State Normal University 




JOHN W. COOK, A.M., LL.D., President, 

Professor of Mental Science and Didactics. 


Principal Training Teacher. 

HENRY McCORMICK, Ph.D., Vice-President, 

Professor of History and Geography. 


Professor of Natural Sciences. 


Professor of Mathematics. 


Professor of Reading. 


Training Teacher, Intermediate and Primary Grades. 

J. ROSE COLBY, Ph.D., Preceptress, 
Professor of Literature. 


Assistant in Mathematics. 


Assistant in History and Geography. 


Teacher of English Grammar. 


Teacher of Drawing. 


Assistant in Reading and Teacher of Gymnastics. 


Assistant in Natural Sciences. 


Assistant Training Teachers, Primary Grade. 

Principal of High School. 


Assistants in High School. 


Principal of Grammar School. 

Teacher of Penmanship and Orthography. 




Early History. 

O^HE Illinois State Normal University was established by act of the 
© Legislature in 1857. The statute providing for its location directed 
the governing board to solicit bids from competing points. Four 
cities were especially interested in securing it. Bloomington, McLean 
county, having offered the most favorable inducements, was selected as 
the location of the school. In October, 1857, the school began its sessions 
in rented rooms in the city of Bloomington. In September, 1860, it 
was removed to what was then known as North Bloomington, where a 
commodious building had been erected for its accommodation. The 
suburb of North Bloomington subsequently became a separate town 
under the name of Normal. It has a population of about 4,000. It is 
a very desirable place of residence, having those qualities which are 
especially characteristic of school towns. The original charter provided 
that intoxicating liquors could never be sold within the limits of the 
town. There are no places of amusement, nor resorts that are in any 
respect objectionable. Electric cars connect Normal with Bloomington. 

Material Equipment. 

^T^HE Normal School is comfortably housed in two buildings. The 
\3) older contains three stories and a basement. It is about 100 by 
120 feet. It is built of brick and cost originally about $120,000. 
The basement contains dressing rooms for gentlemen, the chemical 
laboratory, a room used for clay work, another used for gymnastic exer- 
cises, and several store-rooms. On the first floor are the reading room and 
library, dressing rooms for ladies, office, a spacious room for drawing 
classes, and the assembly room and class rooms of the High School 
Department. On the second floor are the normal assembly room, with 
a seating capacity of 376, and eight class rooms each about 30x32. On 
the third floor are the museum, physical laboratory, office of the teacher 
of natural sciences, a large assembly hall, and the halls of the two 
literary societies. 

The Training School building is a substantial brick structure of 
two stories and a basement. The basement contains play rooms and 
dry closets. On the first floor there are five school rooms, each havin;- 

4 The Organization of the School. 

a seating capacity of forty pupils. There is, beside, a smaller room 
that is used for recitation purposes. On the second floor there i> a 
room for the grammar grade, with a seating capacity of 150. In addi- 
tion to this there are eight recitation rooms, each of which is suffi- 
ciently large to accommodate a class of twenty-five. The peculiar con- 
struction of this part of the building is to be accounted for by the fact 
that it became necessary to secure as many class rooms as possible in 
order to furnish opportunities to a large number of pupil teachers to 
engage in the practice work. 

The two buildings are heated from a commodious boiler house, 
which is equipped with three large bailers. 

The chemical laboratory is well adapted to the needs of the school. 
The physical laboratory is well equipped with apparatus. The museum 
contains a large collection of specimens. The science department is 
furnished with an excellent lantern, and is also supplied with a steam 
pump for the compression of gases. 

The Organization of the School. 

^T^IIE institution known as the Normal School contains three depart- 
\~/ ments: First, the Normal Department; second, the Training 
Department; third, the High School Department. 

No person is admitted to the Normal Department who does not sign 
a declaration of his intentions to teach. Applicants must be 16 years of 
age if females, and 17 if males. No charge is made for tuition except 
to persons attending from other states, who do not expect to teach in 
Illinois. The membership of this department is usually about 500. At 
least eighty counties are ordinarily represented. Eleven teachers are 
employed in this department. 

The Training School Department is a necessary adjunct of the 
Normal Department. It consists of a school of eight grades, five of 
which are below the grammar grade. The aggregate attendance of 
the Training School is usually about 300. Five persons are employed 
in connection with this school. Four of these devote their time to 
directing the practice work of the Normal pupils; the fifth is principal 
of the Grammar Department. No charge is made for pupils in the 
primary grades. The pupils in the intermediate department pay $15 a 
year, and those in the grammar grades $25. 

The High School is conducted for the purpose of giving to pupils a 
business education, or an excellent preparation for college. If has, con- 
sequently, two courses of study, a General Course and a ( 'lassical ( 'oursc. 

Illinois State Nohmal University. 5 

each of which is four years. In this department, three teachers are 
employed. A tuition fee of |3 ( .) a year is charged. By the conditions 
of the law it must be self-supporting. The attendance is about 160. It 
has not only proved self-supporting, but has, for many years, returned 
a very considerable net income. 

Methods of Admission to the Normal 

^HE law establishing the school, provides that pupils may be ap- 
\~/ pointed to free scholarships from the several counties of the state. 
Each county is entitled to two pupils, and each senatorial district 
to four more. Where a county comprises a senatorial district, conse- 
quently, it is entitled to appoint six pupils. Since there are two Nor- 
mal Schools in the State, and all counties will not have representatives 
in each school, the Faculty are authorized to admit a number in excess of 
the number coming by appointment. These applicants are examined by 
the Faculty. The system of appointments is somewhat cumbersome, 
and the management of the institution quite prefers that those 
desiring to attend, should come to the school and pass the regular ad- 
mission examination. 

Graduates of reputable High Schools are admitted upon their di- 
plomas. Persons holding first grade certificates are admitted without 
examination. Students of other State Normal Schools are admitted 
upon presentation of certificates of attendance in such schools, and will 
be excused from taking studies which they have successfully pursued. 
Such pupils should always bring with them a transcript of their records 
in the schools from which they come, and also a certificate of good 
moral character and honorable conduct. Credits are allowed only on 
work taken in State Normal Schbols, or in the University of Illinois. 

The Course of Study. 

^^HE regular course is three years in length. Pupils are permitted to 
\£) take Latin, Greek, and German in the High School Department 
without any charge for tuition. If these subjects are added to 
the course four years are required for its completion. The following 
statement gives the subjects and the time devoted to each. 

The Course of Study. 

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Analysis of Course of Study. 

Analysis of Course of Study. 

READING.— First Year, First Term. 
The Work. — Webster's Phonetic Chart. 

1. A thorough mastery of the forty-four elementary sounds and the 
•phonetic value of the various diacritical markings in words and sylla- 

2. Rapid oral practice upon lists of selected syllables. 

The purpose of the above drill is to enable the student to recognize 
instantly the value of diacritical markings. 

3. Twenty principles of pronunciation are learned and their appli- 
cation observed in the oral phonic analysis of about seven hundred 
words, selected from the vocabulary of ordinary conversation. 

4. Daily practice in oral reading. Selections: (a) Which arouse the 
pupil mentally and physically, thus cultivating an animated rendering; 
(b) which stimulate the emotional nature, and create a desire to make 
the thought effective, thus stimulating to a clear and distinct presen- 
tation of the thought, and an attractive and unconscious bearing; (c) 
wiiich require sudden transitions from one emotional state to another, 
thus cultivating flexibility and naturalness of expression. 

5. Practice in reading second and third grade matter receives 
some attention. In this work students are required to illustrate var- 
ious methods of leading the reader to the correct expression, without 
employing the principle of imitation. 

READING.— First Year, Second Term. 

Two plays of Shakespeare form the text of the term's work. The 
following plays are used: Macbeth, Julius Caesar, Henry VIII., Mer- 
chant of Venice, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, Henry IV. Part I.— 
In this work special stress is laid upon the natural but expressive and 
forcible rendering of the thought. All of the time that can be spared 
from the thought analysis is devoted to practice and drill in oral read- 
ing. In the thought study some collateral reading is required on each 
play. At least one commentary is read, and, if the play is historical, 
the history to which the play relates is read. From one to two hundred 
lines in each play are memorized. The methods of teaching reading in 
the lower grades are discussed in a series of lessons upon that subject. 

GEOGRAPHY.— First Year, First Term. 

Introduction. What Geography treats of. The content of Geogra- 
phy. Why Geography should be taught in the schools. 1. For the 
mental discipline that may be obtained from it. 2. For the knowledge 
thai it contains. 3. Asa basis for the study of other subjects. 4. For 
its value in connection with commerce. 5. For its refining influence. 

Methods. — The analytic and synthetic, with the advantages and 
disadvantages of each. Geography can be taught scientifically; the 
proper sequence of topics should be followed, and the relations of cause 
and effect clearly shown. 

Illinois State Normal University. 9 

Topics in Preparing for Geography. — The making of correct 
mental pictures lies at the basis of all true study of Geography; hence, 
Position, Direction, Distance, Surface, Form, and Color should be the 
first topics. Map representation with the idea of scale: 1. Map of the 
school room floor; 2. Map of the school yard and immediate vicinity. 
Study of the land and water forms in the home neighborhood. The 
home stream. Why so situated? Its source, banks, bed, mouth, trib- 
utaries. Descriptions of larger streams. Pond, lake. Description of 
lakes. Sand modeling. Climate: The atmosphere; effects of heat and 
cold upon the atmosphere; why summer is warmer than winter. Evap- 
oration. Condensation: Rain, hail, snow. Circulation of the water; 
benefits to mankind. Vegetation: Kinds, uses. Animals: Domestic, 
wild; benefits to man. Minerals: Mines, miners. Races of Men: White, 
black, yellow, brown; and homes of different races, customs, manners, 
occupations, education, religion, government. Home Town: Surface, 
drainage, climate, crops, animals, manufactures, railroads, commerce. 
Home County, as above: County seat, notions of government. Home 
State, as above: Capital; principal rivers, principal crops, animals, cities, 
with the reason for the selection made; why the principal cities are so 
located; commerce, showing chief exports and imports. 

Intermediate Grades. — Shape of the earth. Motions of the earth, with 
their consequences. Proper reading of a map. To distinguish between 
land and water as represented on a map. Forms on the map are sym- 
bols, and stand for things. The things themselves should be studied. 
Study of the hemispheres, with reason for names. Study of the con- 
tinents. Differences and resemblances noted. Number. Comparative 
size, etc. Study of principal bodies of water. Position, with reference 
to continents. Oceans, seas, gulfs, etc. Plan for the study of a conti- 
nent: Fitted to home continent. — Position, comparative size, shape, 
outline, surface, drainage, climate, vegetation, animals, man, miner- 
als, political divisions. Study of the United States. Follow plan for 
study of a continent. Sand modeling. Model different forms of land 
and water. Advantages of sand modeling. Abuses. Study of States 
and Territories: Follow the natural features, such as water-sheds, river- 
courses, etc., as far as possible. Forming mental pictures, and repre- 
senting these pictures in maps with the crayon or pencil, and in the 
sand. Study of chief cities. Determining the reason for their location, 
principal industries, and prosperity. Study of the principal railroads, 
showing their importance. Reason for their location, etc. Study of 
government, productions, manufactures, commerce, minerals. Showing 
chief crops, minerals, manufactures, etc., of different sections, with 
reasons for the same, so far as possible. 

GEOGRAPHY.— First Year, Second Term. 

Grammar Grade. —Astronomical Geography. 

1. Definition of terms. 

2. Shape of the earth; (a) Proofs of its rotundity; (/>) Proofs of its 

3. Motions of the earth and their consequences, (a) Rotation on 
axis; day and night; axis; poles; equator; parallels; meridians; lati- 
tude; longitude; zenith; nadir: vertical line of observer; horizon. (/ ) 
Revolution around the sun; earth's orbit, plane of earth's orbit, 

10 Analysis of Course of Study. 

4. Declination of earth's axis. Movement of vertical rays; position of 
tropics; polar circles; width of zones; circle of light; diurnal circle; 
change of seasons; reasons for difference in length of days. Tests. 

5. Study of South America. Position, size, shape, cont >ur; relief; 
drainage; climate, effect of altitude upon climate; principal trees; 
plants; principal crops; principal animals (wild and domestic); in- 
habitants, with brief treatment of their origin, customs, homes, gov- 
ernments, etc. Sketch principal river systems. The different coun- 
tries with their capitals, and a few other cities. What render the cities 
important. What the continent produces for exportation. What it 
imports. Great Britain and Ireland. Close relation of the United States 
and Great Britain. Importance of the kingdom; small in area, but 
great in power and wealth. Outline; surface; principal rivers; climate; 
crops; manufactures; commerce. Principal cities, noted for manufac- 
tures; commerce; as educational centers; centers of historical interest; 
connected with famous literary works. Reasons for more manufactures 
in some localities than in others. Tracing of cause and effect so far as 
possible. Sketch-maps made of important localities. Continental 
Europe: Position; ragged outline; importance of study of outline, or 
contour; benefits arising from irregular coast line; surface; drainage: 
principal river systems sketched; climate; crops; dependence of crops 
upon climate. Study of different countries. Comparative importance 
of each; in what respects important; productions, such as minerals, 
crops, domestic animals, and manufactures. Principal cities. For 
what noted, manufactures, commerce, school-, historical events. 
Governments, customs, homes, etc. Much sand modeling and sketch- 
ing. Asia: Outline; relief; backbone of Asia-Europe; drainage (prin- 
cipal rivers only); climate; effect of great plateaus and high mountain 
barriers; great forests; great deserts; great plains. Different countries: 
principal productions; importance to commerce; leading cities; princi- 
pal exports; imports. The people; their governments; religions; homes; 
costumes; customs; food; education, etc. Africa and Oceanica. 
Studied after the same general plan as Asia, but more briefly, excepting 
Australia, which, because of its importance, is studied somewhat care- 

ARITHMETIC— First Year, First Term. 

I. Oral Analysis of Problems from' Stoddard's Intellectual Arithme- 
tic, four weeks. — The special purpose of this work is to secure pre- 
cision of thought and expression. Attention is called to the nature of 
arithmetical reasoning, the use of the syllogism and enthymeme. The 
language of the analysis must be derived from the operations with ob- 

II. Primary Arithmetic, four weeks. — (a) Purpose — To outline a 
course in number for the first four years, and develop and illustrate the 
principles and methods of instruction. (b) Topics: 1. The logical 
order of number knowledge. 2. The use of counters, cards, and other 
aids in teaching number facts to 10, in developing the decimal system, 
in teaching the fundamental operations in written arithmetic. 3. Oral 
language, forms of description and analysis appropriate to the several 
stages. 4. Forms of written work. 5. Number stories and drill exer- 
cises. ('). The proper use of a primary text-book. 

Illinois State Normal University. 11 

III. Factoring, Fractions, etc., seven weeks. — (a) Purpose. — 1. 
To organize the student's knowledge of Arithmetic by deriving all 
number-relations and processes from the simple idea of addition, and 
the grouping of numbers in the decimal system. 2. To suggest meth- 
ods and devices for teaching the several topics, (b) Method. Fun- 
damental principle. Every process in Arithmetic should be learned 
as a rational process; i. e., an operation with numbers of things. From 
concrete examples, there should be a conscious generalization of the 
process in the form of a rule; finally, long-continued drill until the pro- 
cess with the mere symbols becomes mechanical. Accordingly what 
can be done with integers is first learned from splints, grouped into 
bundles in accordance with the laws of the decimal system. Fractions 
are investigated by folding and cutting paper circles and paper squares. 
The oral description and written representation of the operation thus 
discovered are succeeding stages, (c) Topics. 1. Notation — Laws of 
the decimal system and the Arabic notation; comparison with systems 
of different radix. 2. Fundamental rules — contracted methods. 3. Fac- 
toring — principles of factoring; demonstration of tests of divisibility; 
greatest common factor; least common multiple. 4. Cancellation and 
straight-line analysis. 5. Fractions — the fractional unit; the functions 
of the denominator; illustration and demonstration of the six principles 
upon which the various operations depend. Ordinary text-book topics 
in fractions. In these the central thought is that operations with frac- 
tions are fundamentally the same as operations with integers, the only 
difference arising from the different way of representing the unit. 
6. Decimal Fractions — the peculiar notation; reading and writing pure 
and complex decimals; reduction of common fractions to decimals; rep- 
etends and their simpler laws; effects of moving the decimal point; 
limits of accuracy in multiplication and division. Oughtred's Con- 
tracted Methods. 

ARITHMETIC— First Year, Second Term. 

I. Weights and Measures, three weeks. — Purpose. — 1. To interest the 
student in the derivation and meaning of our standards, the history of 
the calendar and kindred topics. 2. To inform the student in regard to 
the conditions that obtain in problems in carpeting, papering, plaster- 
ing, land and lumber measure, fencing, the measurement of bins, tanks, 
and cisterns, and other practical problems. Topics: 1. Tables of length, 
weight, value, etc. 2. The various problems in reduction of compound 
numbers. 3. Addition, subtraction, etc. 4. The interval between two 
dates. 5. Changing from one system to another. 6. The metric sys- 
tem. 7. Longitude and Time: Construction of comparison table, local 
and standard time, the international date line. 

II. Square and Cube Root, two weeks. — Process is derived from the 
geometrical applications; i. e., finding the side of square, or edge of 
cube, whose area, or volume, is known. 

III. Mensuration, two weeks. — Rules of Mensuration are derived 
from some sort of analysis of the forms measured; thus the ratio of the 
circumference of a circle to its diameter is approximated by measuring 
carefully several cylindrical bodies and averaging quotients obtained 
by dividing each circumference by its diameter. The various plane 

Illinois State Normal University. 13 

figures and solids are treated in the following order: Rectangle, rhom- 
boid, triangle, trapezoid, circle, ring; rectangular prism, prism, cylin- 
der, triangular pyramid, cone, sphere, shell, frustum. 

IV. Percentage, five weeks. Method. — The same forms of analy- 
sis are used as in common fractions. The three fundamental cases are 
carefully studied, and their applications shown in Profit and Loss, Com- 
mission, Stocks, Insurance, Taxes, Interest, Discount and Exchange. 
In these applications, emphasis is laid on the nature of the business, to 
which percentage is applied. The number-work becomes subordinate. 

ALGERRA.— First Year, Third Term. 

I. Algebraic Notation — Fundamental operations. — Especial atten- 
tion is given to the reading of algebraic expressions, the discussion of 
definitions, positive and negative numbers, and the derivation of the 
laws of the fundamental operations. Processes and principles are 
arrived at by deduction from definitions, rather than by generalization 
from particular instances. 

II. Factoring and Fractions. — These subjects are treated with more 
thoroughness than in any of our elementary text-books. The method 
applicable to each class of problems in factoring, is formulated in a 
rule, describing the case and the mode of discovering the factors. 

III. Simple and Fractional Equations — Problems. — The significance 
of the several transformations of equations. How to state a problem. 

GRAMMAR.— First Year, First Term. 

Theme: The sentence. 

1. Sentence treated as the expression of a thought, (a) Sentence 
and its elements simple or complex as the thought or the ideas consti- 
tuting it are simple or complex. 

2. Sentence classified on the basis of form— simple, complex, and 

3. The Simple Sentence: All constructions that may appear in the 
Simple Sentence, including Participle and Infinitive constructions, 

4. The Complex Sentence: Characteristic feature — the Subordinate 
Clause — Substantive, Adjective, or Adverbial. 

5. Different forms, offices, connectives, contractions, and transposi- 
tions of clauses considered. 

6. The Compound Sentence: No distinctive feature; chief con- 
sideration, the thought — relation between the members. 

7. Sentence classified on the basis of meaning as Declarative, In- 
terrogative, Imperative, and Exclamatory. 

8. General: Directions and drill in capitalization and punctuation 
in connection with each form of sentence and the idiomatic constructions 
of the language. 

Professional Instruction. — Grammar, the Science, approached 
through Language, the Art. 

2. Language Teaching: — (1) Purposes: (a) Correctness and Facility 
of Expression, (b) Uplifting and Cultivating the Imagination. (c) 
Clearness and Continuity of thought, (d) Refinement of mind and the 

14 Analysis of Course of Study. 

cultivation of a taste for good literature, (e) Development of character. 
(2) Kinds: Oral and Written. (3) Material, (a) From nature: connect 
with science. (b) From Literature: should be classic. (4) Method 
suggested; four steps, (a) Preparation on points not understood, (h) 
Presentation of matter, (c) Generalization; derivation of lesson, (d) 
Application of lessons. (5) Written Work: Purpose — a mastery of form. 
Form embraces — (a) Penmanship, (b) Spelling, (c) Punctuation, (d) 
Capitalization, (e) Grammatical structure. (/) Rhetorical arrange- 
ment, (g) Appearance on the paper, (i.) Margins, (n.) Indentations, 
(in.) Use of hyphens, etc. (6) How meet these difficulties? Long-con- 
tinued practice in forming sentences. Three kinds of exercises — Sen- 
tence, Composition, and Narrative Exercises. (7) Purpose of Sentence 
Exercise: to lay a foundation for a knowledge of grammatical struc- 
ture. (8) Purpose of Composition Exercise: to secure interest and 
facility in composing. (9) De Garmo's " Language Work below the 
High School " used in class. (10) Historical resume of the develop- 
ment of Language Teaching studied. (11) Student taught to examine 
the book from the teacher's standpoint; the two-fold character of the 
exercises; the development of different forms of the sentence, etc., ob- 
served. (12) A list of fifteen stories now employed in the training- 
school presented; their literary and moral value noted. Students thus 
introduced to Language-teaching. 

GRAMMAR.— First Year, Third Term. 

Line of work two-fold: 

1. Classification, modifications, and uses of the different parts of 
speech. (1) Special attention to uses of tense and mood forms in prin- 
cipal and subordinate clauses. (2) Some correction of false forms. 

2. A thorough application of what has been learned in the 
Analysis and Etymology made to Whittier's Snow-Bound, Lowell's 
Vision of Sir Launfal, Scott's Lady of the Lake, or some equivalent 

General: Text-book used in both terms' work: Higher Lessons in 
English, Reed and Kellogg. 

UNITED STATES HISTORY.— First Year, Third Term. 

Professional. — Attention called to the material to be used, and to 
the manner of presenting it to pupils of the lower grades. 

Primary Grades. — Material. 1. Fairy Tales. 

2. Bible stories. — (a) Characters of whose childhood and youth most 
is known: Joseph; Moses; Samuel; David; Jesus; etc. (b) Abraham; 
Jacob; Daniel; Paul; etc. 

3. Stories of adventure. — 1 Those that occurred near home; (a) ex- 
periences of hunters; fishermen; travelers, (b) Dangers from floods; 
deep snows; high winds; prairie fires; etc. 2 Those that occurred re- 
mote from home. On the railroad; in stages; on steamboats; etc. 

4. Stories about Indians — Theirdress; homes; canoes; hunting expe- 
ditions; war expeditions; cruelty to prisoners; sports of the children; etc. 

5. Explanation of national holidays — Fourth of July; Decoration 
day; Thanksgiving day; Washington's birthday. 

i). Biographies. — Washington; Columbus; Lincoln; Grant; Sherman; 
Sheridan; etc 

Illinois State Normal University. 15 

Method of presentation. — 1. At first, the teacher must tell the sto- 
ries. The children must not be expected to repeat them. 2. Later on, 
the teacher may read some of the stories, although it is better to tell 
them, and the children should be expected to reproduce them in their 
own language; orally at first, later in writing. The stories can be 
made the texts for the work in language. 

Purpose of the ivork. — 1. To awaken a historical spirit. 2. To cul- 
tivate the imagination. 3. To aid in character building. 

Intermediate Grades. — Material. Biographies. 

Discoveries. — Columbus; the Oabots; Americus Vespucci; Cartier; 

Explorers. — De Soto; Ohamplain; La Salle; John Smith; Lewis and 
Clarke; John C. Fremont. 

Colonizers. — Raleigh; Roger Williams; Lord Baltimore; William 
Penn; Oglethorpe. 

Pioneers and Indian Fighters. — Miles Standish; Daniel Boone; 
" Kit" Carson. 

Statesmen. — Benjamin Franklin; Thomas Jefferson; Alexander 
Hamilton; Daniel Webster; Henry Clay; Abraham Lincoln. 

Generals. — Washington: Greene; Scott; Grant; Sherman; Sheridan. 

Naval Officers. — Isaac Hull; Decatur; Perry; Farra^nt. 

Inventors. — Whitney; Fulton; Morse; McCormick; Howe; etc. 

History of Typical Colonies. — Plymouth; New York; Rhode Island; 
Maryland; Pennsylvania; Georgia. 

Social condition of the people at different periods. — Troubles with 
the Indians. Manner of living: Homes; clothing; customs; social 

Wars. — King Philip's War. French and Indian War : Ticonderoga; 
Quebec. Revolutionary War : Bunker Hill; Valley Forge: Yorktown. 
War of 1812: Lundy's Lane; New Orleans. Mexican War: Buena 
Vista; Cerro Gordo. The Civil War: Fort Sumter; Merrimac and 
Monitor; Malvern Hill; Gettysburg; Vicksburg; The Wilderness; Sur- 
render of Lee. 

Method. — A text-book may be used, but better results will be ob- 
tained without, if the teacher is prepared. The narrative form should 
be preserved throughout. There should be a vivid picturing of men 
and events. Pictures and brief historical poems will add much to the 
interest and value of the work. 

Grammar Grades. — Material : 1. A good text-book on the subject. 
2. One or two histories of the United States, more extended than the 
text, for reference. 3. A few historical novels noted for the vividness 
and truthfulness of their descriptions. 4. Collection of poems founded 
on incidents in American history. 

Method.- — Frequent reference should be made to the work in the 
preceding grades. The narrative form should still be used. Attention 
should be given to the causes which led to important results. The vir- 
tues of the people should be pointed out. Their resistance to oppres- 
sion, thfir sacrifices for the right, and their moderation in victory should 
be commended. Throughout the entire work, the patriotism of the 
fathers should be held up for the emulation of their sons. And the 
truth should be emphasized that there can be no true freedom where 
there is not a cheerful obedience to law. 

16 Analysis of Course of Study. 

Academic. — Condition of P^urope at time of discovery of America. 

1. Granada conquered by Ferdinand and Isabella. :i. The 1 ' War of the 
Roses," in England, closed shortly before by the battle of Bosworth. 
3. Eve of the Reformation. 4. Sad condition of the common people. 

Claims of the Northmen considered. 

Columbus — Youth; manhood; seeking for aid; aid obtained; the first 
voyage; land discovered; return to Spain; reception at Barcelona; effect 
of discovery on Europe; other voyages: results; old age; misfortunes; 
injustice; death. 

Other Spanish discoverers and explorers. 

English discoverers and explorers — The Cabots; Drake; John 
Smith, etc. 

French discoverers and explorers— Verrazzani; Cartier; Champlain; 
LaSalle; Marquette; The Jesuit Fathers. 

Dutch discoverers. 

Colonization — Spain in the south; England in the center; France in 
the north, south, and west. 

Growth of the Colonies — English colonies surpass the others in 
wealth and numbers. 

Troubles — Between English and Spanish colonies. Between English 
and French colonies. Nearly all of these troubles grow out of troubles 
in Europe. 

French and Indian War — Cause; principal events; results; training 
school for Revolutionary War. 

Internal troubles of English colonies — Indians; religious troubles; 
local jealousies. 

Life in the Colonies. — Religion; education; homes; dress; customs; 
industries; mode of travel; social usages; growth in wealth and popu- 

Revolutionary War. — Remote causes; immediate causes; principal 
events; principal actors; self-control of the people; respect for law. 

"The Building of the Nation." — Articles of Confederation; their 
insufficiency; danger of disintegration; making the Constitution; the 
Constitution contrasted with the Articles of Confederation. 

Growth of the Nation. — The president; financial policy fixed; in- 
ternal troubles; foreign policy fixed: troubles with France; troubles 
with Barbary States; troubles with England. 

War of 1812. — Causes; principal events; results. 

Admission of States. 



Development of material resources. 

Slavery. — Introduction; legislation affecting slavery. 

Mexican War. —Cause; principal events; results; acquisition of 
territory; discovery of gold in California; result of the discovery. 

The Civil War. — Causes; principal events; results; abolition of 
slavery; the "New South." 

History of the Nation since the Civil War. — Admission of States; 
political parties; political policies; labor movements; progress in the 
arts and sciences; achievements in literature; study of political and 
domestic economy; general prosperity. 

18 Analysis of Course of Study. 

ELEMENTS OF PEDAGOGY.— First Year, First Term. 

Purpose. — To interest the student in the study of the child as t In- 
true center of gravity for all educational doctrine and method, and to 
show the development of this principle in the history of modern educa- 
tion. Sense perception, as the first and fundamental form of mind 
activity, is the basis of the term's work. 

Topics. — 1. Conditions necessary to mind growth; the senses: the 
environment. 2. Does the new-born infant see, hear, etc.? 3. The be- 
ginning of psychical activity, as first aroused through sense perception. 
4. Story of Laura Bridgman. 5. The first sense percepts. 6. Sense 
perception deals with the individual object. 7. Limitations of sense 
perception as a means of acquiring knowledge. 8. A higher stage of 
mind activity, the perception of relations. 9. The class notion: how it 
is developed in the experience of the child. 10. The two poles of mental 
activity: the individual notion and the class notion. It is the chief 
business of education to pass from distinctly perceived individual no- 
tions to clear, general notions. — Pestalozzl. Quick's Educational Reform- 
ers, revised edition, is here introduced, and used as a text-book for the 
remainder of the term. 

Topics. — 1. The condition of the schools at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. 2. Renascence. 3. John Amos Comenius. 4. The 
Orbis Pictus. 5. The fundamental principle of Comenius, " There is 
nothing in the understanding that has not been previously in the sense." 
6. The picture as an educational instrument. 7. The educational doc- 
trine of Comenius summed up in principles. 8. Jean Jacques Rousseau. 
9. Emile. 10. Rousseau's fundamental principle, " Everything is good 
as it comes from the Author of nature; everything degenerates in the 
hands of man." 11. Education natural and negative. 12. Furnish the 
child a proper environment and let him alone. 13. Periods in the life of 
Emile. 14. The function of the teacher in Rousseau's system. 15. Max- 
ims and principles of Rousseau. 16. Things false and things true in 
Rousseau's doctrine. 17. John Henry Pestalozzi: his biography; his 
characteristics as a teacher; as an educator. 18. Leonard and Ger- 
trude. 19. Maxims and principles of Pestalozzi. 20. Frederic Froebel: 
(tt) as a disciple of Pestalozzi; (5) as the founder of the kindergarten. 
21. Play as an educational instrument. 

PEDAGOGY.— First Year, Second Term. 

Special Method in History and Literature for the first six grades. 

Purpose. — Discussion of principles and observation of their applica- 
tion to class-room exercises. Citution as to the method of note-taking. 
Neat writing, correct spelling, brief and significant statements of topics 
discussed, and of observations. 


Preliminary discussion of principles involved in good recitation work. 

1. Attention. — Why necessary? Means used in securing it: (a) By the 
authority and watchfulness of the teacher, (b) By the manner of the 
teacher, confident, agreeable, sympathetic, earnest, (c) By appealing to 
interest. The selection of interesting subject matter. Clear and simple 
manner of presentation. Graphic drawiner and illustration. Vivid word 

Illinois State Normal University. 19 

pictures and narratives. Appeal to the imagination of children and make 
use of their home knowledge in constructing ideas of distant objects. 
(d) Variety during the recitation. 

2. Know the subject to be taught. — (a) The chief ideas and principles. 
(b) The details, (c) The causal relations, (d) Related topics in other 
subjects. How detailed should one's knowledge be to teach a subject? 
To what extent should related sciences be brought into the treatment? 
Example. Fulton's first steamboat, (a) Description in detail of the 
first trip up the Hudson, (b) The machinery, the boat, and its con- 
struction, (c) Previous life and inventions of Fulton, (d) Other at- 
tempts at steamboat building before Fulton's, (e) Value and effect of 
Fulton's invention. Should the principle of the steam engine be ex- 
plained in this lesson? 

3. Apperception. — The use made of children's previous knowledge 
in school recitations, i. e., the interpretation and understanding of new 
objects by means of previously acquired ideas. Sources of apperceiving 
ideas: (a) Home experiences. Ideas gained by travel and observation. 

(b) School studies and reading of books. Examples of apperception: 
Carpet weaving as related to textile fabrics. The school house as a 
standard for buildings. The importance of conscious apperception: (a) 
Frequency of our unconscious use of old ideas, (b) Children often fail 
to use their acquired knowledge; i. e. they fail to think, 1o consider. 

(c) Closer union between a child's home and school experiences. 

4. Know the children. — (a) What to know: Individual characteristics 
and dispositions. The abilities, faults, physical and mental weakness, and 
vices of children. Quick insight and judgment of children's ideas and 
feelings. Previous home experiences and training of children, (b) How 
to know children: By direct personal observation, thoughtful and 
careful. By the study of psychology and physiology. By the teacher 
cultivating social experience and tact outside of school. By reading 
and appreciating the best children's books; also the best works of 
fiction by great novelists and poets; also the best historical biographies 
and memoirs. By studying the lives of educators like Mann, Arnold, 
Pestalozzi, Froebel. 

5. Requirements for good oral work. — Vivid presentation by teacher. 
Full and complete reproduction by children. Outlines of topics made 
by teacher. A basis for reproduction. Outlines preserved in blank 
books of children. 


Application of previous principles. 

1. Illustrative lesson from history stories. Topic: Fremont and 
party crossing the Sierra Nevada. Outline of lesson: 1. Plan of the 
whole trip. 2. Journey along the east slope. 3. Survey of the situa- 
tion. 4. Dangers and difficulties. Criticism and discussion of this les- 
son: 1, Manner of presentation; diagram and map. 2. Reproductions 
of children halting; why? 3. Importance of Geography. 4. Use made 
of outlines of topics. 5. Incidental language drill. 

2. Illustrative lesson on LaSalle. 1. (Review). Tonty and the In- 
dians. 2. (Advance.) Tonty's journey to Green Bay. 3. LaSalle's re- 
turn and search for Tonty. 4. Confederacy of western Indians. Crit- 
icism of this lesson: 1. Success of the children in telling the story. 
2. Study the causes in the story. Questions to this end: 3. How far 

20 Analysis of Course of Study. 

must geography be used in history? 4. How many pupils were failed 

3. Conclusions from lessons observed: 1. Necessity of vivid and 
graphic presentation by the teacher. 2. Thorough reproductions by 
the children, and drill on the facts. 3. Value of outline, both for 
teacher and pupil in the logical arrangement and mastery of a subject. 
4. Warning against carelessness and looseness in oral work. 


History and Literature in the first six gr< i dcs. Chief Purpose, to get 
more choice literature into all grades. 

1. Fairy Tales in First Grade. The merits of these tales, (a) Interest 
and enthusiasm of children for the stories, (b) The best fairy tales classi- 
cal and ancient as literature, (c) Instructive as to plants, animals, and 
society. (cZ) They interest both teacher and pupil, and do not lose their 
charm by repetition. Appeal to fancy, (e) They awaken sympathy 
between pupils and teacher, (f) Fairy tales illustrate moral ideas in 
attractive personification. Criticisms: («) They are untrue, violating 
the laws of nature, (b) They overstimulate the fancy of children, (c) 
Many of the stories are foolish. Natural Science more interesting, (d) 
Fairy tales belong to the home. Comparison of faults and merits, and 

2. List of Fairii Tales used in First Grade: The Old i Woman and the 
Pig. The Three Bears. Little Red Riding Hood. The Fir Tree. The 
Four Musicians. The Little Match Girl. The Lion and the Mouse. 
The Discontented Pine Tree. How a Little Boy Got a New Shirt. The 
Anxious Leaf. The Spruce Tree. The Chestnut Boys. The Christ 
Child and St. Antonio. King of the Birds. The Pea Blossom. The 
Morning Glory Seed. The Rainbow Fairies. Nothing but Leaves. 

3. Manner of treating the stories. — 1. Vivid presentation by the 
teacher: Simple, clear, graphic. 2. Re-telling of the sto.y by chil- 
dren. 3. Necessity of sympathy, patience, and encouragement. 

4. Illustrative Lesson by the Teacher of the First Grade. Story of the 
Four Musicians. Children diffident and fearful in telling the review 
lesson. Quiet and encouraging manner of the teacher. Questions in 
preparation for the advance lesson: Simple and clear narrative by 
teacher. Her repetitions. In the following reproductions teacher uses 
no compulsion, but persistent in getting the story from the children. 
Dialogue and other devices to lend life and interest to the reproduc- 
tions. Children imitate the animals. Need for drill and persistence. 

5. Use of Fairy Stories in learning to read. — (a) Methods of learn- 
ing to read. Alphabetic. Phonic, Word, Sentence. The analytic and 
synthetic method combined. (/>) Illustrative lesson in redding. First 
grade, by the regular teacher. Sentence from the Four Musicians, 
given by children. " The donkey carried sacks down to the mill for 
his master-" Children read the sentence. Word drill upon the new 
words in different ways. The word mill analyzed and new words 
formed as hill, till, still, chill, etc. Appropriation of new words by 
pupils rapid, (e) Discussion nf this lesson, Quickness of the teacher. 
Variety of her work. Playfulness in questioning. Devices to arouse 
interest. Script and print; how used. These sentences are also printed 
ana put before the children for later reading. To what extent is it 

Illinois State Normal University. 21 

practicable to substitute fairy stories, and such board work for charts? 
Can the stories be printed so as to serve as first readers? 


Robinson Crusoe in Second Grade. — (a) Interesting and instructive to 
children, (o) The common occupations of life made interesting. 
Children study their home more closely in Crusoe; e. g., shoema*ker, 
tailor, brick maker, carpenter, fruit grower. Crusoe is a type of man's 
early struggle with nature. Very realistic and subject to natural law. 
(c) Moral value of Crusoe's story. Crusoe is reckless and disobedient 
in youth, serious and devout in later years. A gradual change produced 
by experiences, (d) The permanent classical value of Crusoe tested by 
years. The simple arts of society, and society itself, are conspicuous 
by their absence. The value of the home also is expressed in the in- 
tense longing felt for it. (e) Does the story of Crusoe belong in the home, 
or in the school? Its great value can only be seen with a teacher. 
The relations of the story of Crusoe to other studies are many. Plants 
animals, geography, language, reading. 

chapter v. 

The Tales of Troy for Third Grade. — (a) The story an interesti7ig one to 
children. It is a classical type of the heroic age. It was the bible 
of the Greeks, and is a classic everywhere. The heroic age in other 
countries. Tell, Bruce, Seigfried.. (o) The stories are instructive. 
Ships, cities, commerce, palaces, sacrifices, war, geography, and many 
customs described. Greek life pictured vividly, (c) Moral value, 
heroism, cowardice, manly strength, generosity, evil deeds and their 
punishment. Homer true to human life and character. Homer teaches 
by warning and by example. Interest in the conduct of men, the chief 
thing. The Odyssey as a story suited for third grade. It belongs earlier 
than the Iliad, because simpler. Ulysses a hero, adventurer, and wise 


American History Stories in Fourth and Fifth Grades. — (a) Great 
abundance of American history stories, (b) The best characters should be 
chosen, (c) Biographies most suitable and valuable to children. Nearly 
all classical materials of the great poets are personal and biographical; 
e. g., Shakespeare's plays, Milton's Paradise Lost, Scott, Hawthorne, 
Dickens, etc. (d) Stories of the earlier or pioneer epoch are best suited 
to children. Conditions of life simple; e. g., Champlain, Marquette, Col- 
umbus, Magellan, John Smith, William Penn. Children should under- 
stand the circumstances and environment of a man to judge his actions. 
Stories of the revolution and of the civil war have a too complex setting 
for children. (c) These early biographical stories are instructive. De- 
scribe fully many important formative events in history. Give a vivid 
picture of early hardships and privations. Touch many points in geog- 
raphy and natural science. (/) Their moral value is much above the 
average of history. Hardy, sturdy characters described under condi- 
tions that bring out their faults and virtues; e.g., La Salle, Fremont, 
Clarke, Lincoln, Washington, in early life. Many acts of the highest 

Illinois State Normal University. 23 

morality clearly presented. Detailed biographies of our best characters 
are the best historical material upon which to cultivate moral judgment. 
({/) These stories should be studied in fourth and fifth grades as a prep- 
aration for history proper in grammar grades. List of pioneer history 

chapter vii. 

Study of Colonial History in Sixth Grade. — (a) The history of several 
important colonies in detail; e. g., "Pilgrims and Puritans." (o) Read- 
ing of Miles Standish, Evangeline, etc. Knickerbocker Stories, Sketch 
Hook. (c) The simple beginnings and early development of political 
ideas fully explained. 



Home Geography. — 1. Observations of home streams, surface, groves, 
weather phenomena, occupations, products, food, clothing, and building 
materials; observation of sun, moon, and stars, commerce in the local 
trade centre, and local forms of government. 2. Study of the World as 
a. Whole. — A globe, motions of the earth about the sun, seasons, conti- 
nents, oceans. 3. From the Home Outwards. — The town and state, with a 
few of its leading topics; e. g., In Illinois, grain raising, the coal mines, 
the Illinois river and canal, Chicago. Surface and boundaries of the 
state. The neighboring states of the Mississippi valley. The United 
States and North America. 4. The Selection of Typical Topics. — Full 
and detailed treatment of such important topics; e. g. , Hudson River, 
Chicago, Pike's Peak, Lake George. A coal mine. The manufacture 
of cotton goods. Lumbering. 5. Graphic illustration and pictures. 
The constructive imagination must be very active in both pupil and 
teacher. 6. Causal Relations. — The explanation of cities, industries, 
lines of traffic, and climate is found in certain causes. Commercial 
series should be formed dependent upon history and geographical struc- 
ture. 7. The relation of geography to other studies is important and 
vital. History, natural science, and language are intimate friends of 
geography. 8. The teaching of geography should be largely oral. It 
is graphic and descriptive and calls for imagination and lively presen- 


Illustrative Lessons in Geography. — 1. The home village as a trade 
centre. Grains, fruits, meats, wood, and dairy produce from the gar- 
dens and farms. The goods purchased by the farmers and gardeners at 
the stores and whence they come. 2. Lake George. — Map and descrip- 
tion, its elevation, history, compared in size with Geneva lake, Salt 
Lake, Lake Superior. 3. Erie Canal. — Locks, history, present traffic. 
Comparison with railroads in speed and cheapness. 4. A Coal Mine. — 
Locating the coal. Sinking the shaft. Ventilation of the mine. Dan- 
gers. Machinery. Uses of the coal. 5. St. Louis. — Advantages of its 
situation. History. Railroads and rivers. The bridge. Raw products 
received. Wholesale business. Manufactures. Comparison with Chi- 

24 Analysis of Course of Study. 

PEDAGOGY, Third Term, First Year. 
Natural Sciences in the Grades. 


Special Method. — The purposes of natural science teaching, as his- 
torically manifested. 1. Curiosity and entertainment. 2. Utility, an 
acquaintance with useful and hurtful animals and plants. 3. Accurate 
description of specimens and cultivation of the observing powers. 4. 
The ability to classify and determine the place of each individual in a 
system. 5. The development of general laws and consequent insight 
into nature's work; the environment. 6. Life histories of plants and 
animals. 7. Life groups, function of the parts and the adaptation of 
each living thing to its environment. All of these purposes should be 
combined and realized in an adequate plan of nature study. 


Method of treating objects in natural science. — 1. Let the children see 
and describe the objects. The teacher should simply keep them on the 
right track. 2. External characteristics should not be made the chief 
points of description. 3. Raise some general problem in the life of a 
plant or animal and weave in the external characteristics as incidental 
to this purpose. Causal relations in regard to structure and function 
should be made central in the discussion. 4. Select specimens of plant 
or animal life that are typical of large classes, and then study the 
individuals with great fullness of detail, both as to life history, en- 
vironment, and adaptation. 5. Comparisons of this type specimen 
with others of the same order or genus and contrasts with those 
of entirely different nature are very helpful in discriminating the 
chief characteristics of the type. 6. Keep the topics treated clearly 
outlined in logical order, and on this basis secure full and accurate 
descriptions and reproductions. The outlines should be neatly kept 
in blank books and form the basis of comparisons, reviews, and 
compositions. 7. The teacher may add much to the interest and in- 
structive phase by presenting additional facts not accessible to the 
children. 8. Excursions are necessary for the collections and for ob- 
servation. Nature should be studied in her living forms and natural 
environment as far as possible. 9. Graphic representation and draw- 
ing are of great value to both teacher and pupil. 


The selection of materials. — 1. Plants and animals are the best stud- 
ies for the children of lower grades. 2. Minerals, chemistry, and 
physics and other sciences increase in interest for older pupils. 
:>>. Home plants and animals are better than distant ones. Interest in 
i lie commonesl objects, as oxen, cats, sunflower, etc., may be very great. 
4. Select, according to the season those things most accessible. 5. There 
should lie ;i good 'leal of wide, general observation, but the major part 
of the. work should consist in a detailed study of a few typical speci- 
mens, with a very full biography of its life and environment, parts and 

Illinois State Normal University. 25 

chapter iv. 

Illustrative lessons. — 1. The mole. Its adaptation to a home under- 
ground. Broad fore feet and claws, powerful forearm and muscles. 
Snout. Small, hidden eyes; peculiar fur. Teeth for crushing insect 
food. Voracious appetite. His home habits in winter. 2. The cactus. 
Its adaptation to a dry climate. 3. The ox. As type of the ruminants. 
The four stomachs. The teeth. Food. Great variety of uses of ox. 
4. The maple tree. Sugar maple. Circulation of sap, building up of 
fibres, work of the leaves, life of the tree. Function of all the parts. 
The bark, roots, etc. 5. The cat. As type of the cat family. Study 
the eyes and teeth, nocturnal habits, adaptation of feet, claws, teeth, 
whiskers, and bodily structure to catching its prey. 6. The duck. 
Mallard. Type of water birds. Feet, feathers, migrations, food, uses. 
7. The honey bee. Type of the colonizing insects. Structure of insect 
Getting honey. Division of labor. Structure of the comb. 



1. The proper combination of the sentence, word, and phonic 
method in first learning to read. 2. When to work analytically, when 
synthetically. 3. The use of sentences from natural science and litera- 
ture. 4. Use of the blackboard, of charts, and of readers. 5 Special 
devices : (a) Use at first simple words of phonetic spelling, (b) Clear 
phonic drill. (c) Interpret new words by their familiar sounds. (d) 
Make a list of words with a different combination. Let the children 
form such lists. (e) Avoid drawling and get expressive, natural tones. 
(/) A very sympathetic manner with young children. (g) Quick and 
varied drill. (h) For busy work let children construct words and sen- 
tences, (i) Reading and writing run parallel from the first. 


Reading above the primary grades. — 1. Purpose. — Increased power 
to render thought expressively. Secondary purpose, information and 
appreciation of literature. 2. Select pieces suited to instruct and in- 
terest the pupils. Read whole classical selections, not fragments. 

3. Drill. — Read less in quantity and make steady improvement. 

4. Preparation of the lesson by the teacher, by the pupil. 5. Cultivate 
slow and distinct expression. 6. Cautions. — Position, phonetic drill, 
notice unaccented syllables and words and final consonants. 7. Make 
questions and criticisms specific. 8. Expression. — Question for em- 
phatic ideas, for the modifications of subject and predicate, for contrasts 
and comparisons. Notice general style of the piece. Appeal to imag- 
ination and feeling and sense pictures. Occasional illustrative reading 
by the teacher. 9. Sight reading, occasional supplementary reading to 
cultivate quickness and increase information. 10. Avoid too rapid, 
mumbling, sing-song, irresolute reading. Avoid the careless assignment 
of lessons. 

26 Analysis of Course of Study. 



Primary and Intermediate grades. 1. Purpose. — Drill in the correct 
use of oral and written English. Incidental language drill in history, 
geography, and natural science. 2. Composition. — Outlines kept from 
history, natural science, and geography are the basis of written com- 
positions. Great care in writing, capitals, spelling, and paragraphing. 
Errors of the children corr cted and discussed with the children. 
Compositions rewritten with avoidance of errors. Some simple rules 
are helpful. 3. Exercises in Correct Oral Speech. -Common errors 
pointed out and the correct forms drilled upon. Homonyms, adverbs, 
pronouns, and irregular verbs receive full attention. Correct habit is 
the aim, not the rules of grammar. The regular grading of this work 
for each term. 4. Spirit and life in this formal drill. 


Grammar in the advanced grades. 1. Purpose. — Knowledge of the 
principles and laws of language. Grammar as an aid in correct speech. 

2. Why technical grammar should be excluded from the lower grades. 

3. Etymology and Syntax. 4. The inductive approach to rules and 
principles. 5. Parsing and diagrams. Analysis. 


1. Written and oral spelling. 2. Spelling reform. 3. The spelling 
book. 4. Use of rules in spelling. 5. The writing speller. (3. The 
application of spelling to other studies. 



First Year. 1. The Grube method. Its six requirements. 2. The 
use of objects. Variety and simplicity. 3. First learn all the combi- 
nations in a single number in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and 
division. 4. Use of series first and miscellaneous drill later. 5. The 
drawing and writing of numbers. Seat and board work. 6. Absolute 
mastery of the combinations. Great variety of drill and frequent 
repetition. 7. Rapid and lively drill the basis of interest. 8. Learn- 
ing of numbers up to ten. 9. The formal steps in primary number. 10. 
Illustrative treatment of the number 6. 


Second Year. 1. Grube not followed in second grade. The deci- 
mal system. 2. Arrangement of series from easy to difficult. Treat- 
menl of pure tens first. 3. Addition and subtraction tables to 100. 4. 
Order of the multiplication tables, 10,2,5,4,3,6,9,8,7. 5. Tables 
first, then miscellaneous drill till perfection is attained. (>. .Multiplica- 
tion and division run parallel. 7. Objects in second grade. A large 

Analysis of Course of Study. 

Normal Department. 

DRAWING. — Two Years, Two Lessons per Week. 

1. Our Aim. — 1. To teach Drawing as a language. 2. To lead pupils 
to seek culture from the beautiful in Nature and Art. 3. To promote 
mental development. 

2. General Points.— 1. Drawing a language. 2. Drawing based 
upon form study. 3. Three divisions of drawing as to use: Drawing 
showing construction. Drawing showing appearance. Drawing of the 
enrichment or decoration. 4 An object may be pictured by repre- 
senting its outline, its light and shade, or its color. 

3. Form Study — in clay, (a) Natural objects: Fruits, leaves, vege- 
tables, (b) Geometric forms: Sphere, cube, cylinder. 

4. Drawing — Suggestions for Movement and Position, (a) Geo- 
metric views. Construction drawing. 1. Two views necessary. 2. 
Invisible edges. 3. Foreshorted views. 4. Section views, (b) Perspec- 
tive views in outline. 1. Curved edged objects: Face view of the circle. 
Edge view of the circle. Oblique view of the circle. 2. Straight edged 
objects, (a) In straight position: Edges from top to bottom. Edges 
from left to right. Receding edges, (b) In-turned position: Edges 
from top to bottom. Receding edges. To the left; to the right. 

Color. — 1. Source of color. 2. Use of color. 3. Effect of color. 
4. Theory of color. 5. Color Harmony. 6. Drawing in color: 1. From 
nature. 2. From common objects. 

DRAWING.— Second Year. 

History. Architecture. Ornament. 

Ancient Period. — Egyptian school. Greek school. Roman School. 

Mediaeval Period. — Byzantine school. Saracenic school. Gothic 

Modern. — Renaissance. 

Pupils make drawings of the characteristic elements of constructive 
and ornamentation. 

Light and shade (with pencil). From cast. From nature. From 
common objects. From models. 

Illustrative Drawing. From nature; cast; copy. This work is an 
effort to acquire skill in rapid illustrative work, and the material is 
gathered from any source. 


Outline of work. 

Purposes. — I. To fix clearly in the minds of the pupils the follow- 
ing fundamental ideas. 1. To write well requires a correct conception 
of what is to be written. 2. Ability to execute that conception with 
pen, pencil, or crayon. 3. This ability must be gained through careful 
practice, for it is an acquired habit, and habit comes from repetition. 
i. The practice must be careful, else instead of eliminating, the pupil 
will only be confirming a faulty habit. 5. It requires but little time to 
acquire ;i correct mental picture of a hitter, compared with the time 
acquired to train the muscles to make it rapidly and easily. Hence, 
by far, the greater share of the time should be devoted to training the 

Illinois State Normal University. 29 

muscles. 6. Movement is the mainspring of any good writing system, 
and the muscular movement is by all authorities conceded to be the 
best. 7. To improve our writing, we must improve our habits of mak- 
ing the individual letters. To do this, the best way is to repeat the 
same letter in an exercise with constant effort at improvement. 

II. To make the transition — for with most pupils it is a transition 
— to muscular movement, and give as much drill as the time will per- 
mit, in movement exercises for the purpose of securing control of this 


The object of the work: 

1. To secure health by means of exercise, which, (a) raise the vital 
organs to their proper altitude; (h) relieve friction in the articulations 
and stimulate the vital organs; (c) increase the strength of the torso, 
while developing the extremities; (d) develop the relation between the 

2. To make of the body a perfect servant of the mind, by securing: 
(a) normal bearing; (b) freedom and grace of movement; (c) self-com- 
mand; (d) the proper relation between body and mind. The exercises 

First Group, (n) Exercises to obtain erect position; (o) poising: 
1. Forward. 2. Backward; 3. Up. 4. Down. 

Second Group. Movements for freeing muscles of the (a) hips; (b) 
sides; (c) chest; (d) waist; (e) neck; (/) wrists; (g) knees. 

Third group, (a) Inhaling: 1. Without arm movement. 2. With 
arm movement. (<b) Bending: 1. Forward. 2. Backward. 3. Lat- 
erally. 4. Diagonally forward. 5. Diagonally backward, (c) Twist- 
ing body: 1. Around the left to back. 2. Around the right to back. 
(d) Reaching: 1. Laterally. 2. Diagonally forward. 3. Diagonally 

Fourth Group. Arm movements; with instruction in walking, 
marching, running, and jumping. 

Advanced Work. 1. Responsive work. 2. Pantomime. 

VOCAL MUSIC— First Year, Spring Term. 

1. Methods of instruction in elements of vocal music. 

2. Practice in reading in five keys. 

3. Philosophy of transposition. 

4. Choral practice. 

Course in Natural Sciences. 

ZOOLOGY.— Second Year, First Term. 

1. Collection of Insects; Study of Insects; Principles of Classifica- 
tion developed by comparing and contrasting several kinds of Insects. 

2. The Crayfish, studied alive and then dissected (type of Crustacea). 

3. External characteristics of Birds. Analysis of Birds (Jordan's Man- 
ual). 4. Study of the following animals alive; dissection as types: — 

30 Analysis of Course of Study. 

(a) Earthworm (Vermes); (b) Clam (Mo.luska); (e) Perch (Pisces); 
(d) Frog (Batrachia); (e) Snake (Reptilia); (/) Pigeon (Aves); (y) 
Rabbit (Mammalia). 5 Study of live Hydra. 6. Study of a few Pro- 
tozoa. 7. Study of Starfish and Sea-urchin (alcoholic). 

Drawings and descriptions of animals studied preserved in perma- 
nent note-book. 

Text-books: Packard; Colton's Practical Zoology. 

PHYSIOLOGY.— Second Year, Second Term. 

1. Muscle. (1) Experiments on the Muscles in our bodies. (2) 
Models of Human Muscles. (3) Dissection of hind leg of rabbit. (4) 
Structure of Muscle, (a) gross; (b) minute. (5) Action of Muscle (ex- 
periment on frog's muscle). (6) Training of Muscles (symmetrical de- 

2. Bone. (1) Bones as levers. (2) Bones as protectors (brain and 
spinal cord). (3) Bone structure, (a) gross; (b) microscopic. (4) 
Joints, (a) Dissection of joints of rabbit's leg, and beef joints. 

3. General Functions of the Nervous System, Sensation and Motion. 
1. Experiments on frog, reflex action of the Spinal Cord. 2. Dissection 
of Spinal Cord and Brain of cat. 3. Voluntary Motion. 4. Sensation 
of Touch. 

4. Circulation. 1. External indications of the Circulation of Blood: 
Heart beat, pulse, blushing, pallor, experiments on veins, etc. (a) 
Microscopic examination of frog's blood, (b) Circulation of blood in 
web of frog's foot under microscope. 2. Internal proofs of the Circula- 
tion of the Blood, (a) Dissection of heart and lungs (sheep or pig), 
(b) demonstration of the action of the heart, (c) injection of arteries, 
(d) tracing injected arteries and veins. 3. Description of Organs of 
Circulation and their action'. (a) Action of frog's heart, (b) action of 
the heart, (c) experiments illustrating the action of the large arteries, 
(d) action of medium-sized arteries (plain muscle fibers), (e) veins 
(valves). 4. Blood and Lymph, (a) Microscopic examination of drop 
of blood from finger, (b) composition of blood, (c) coagulation of blood, 
(d) injection of thoracic duct (lymph). 5. Hygiene of Circulation. 

5. Respiration. 1. Organs of respiration. 2. Mechanical process of 
respiration. 3. Experiments illustrating respiration. 4. Capacity of 
the lungs. 5. Composition of air. 6. Experiments illustrating the 
chemistry of respiration. 7. Experiments snowing the differences be- 
tweeu inspired and expired air. 8. Production of heat and motion in 
the body. 9. Comparison of the human body and a locomotive. 10. Hy- 
giene of respiration. 

6. Excretion. 1. The Skin. Functions: (a) Excretory, (b) heat- 
regulating, (c) protective, (d) sensory, (e) absorptive. 2. The Kidneys. 
(a) dissection of pig's or sheep's kidney, (b) action of the kidneys, (c) 
relations of the lungs, kidneys, and skin. 

7. Digestion. 1. Foods and cooking. 2. Dissection of the digestive 
organs of a cat. 3. Study of cross and longitudinal sections of teeth. 4. 
The salivary glands. 5. Experiments with artificial digestion. 0. Ab- 
sorption. 7. Hygiene of digestion. S. Taking "cold," diarrhoea, 

8. The, Nervous System. Functions of the Brain and Spinal Cord. 
Hygiene of the Nervous System. 

Illinois State Normal University. 31 

9. The Special Senses. Sight, (a) dissection of the eye, (b) ex- 
periments on accommodation, (c) experiments on blind spot, (d) exper- 
iments on color contrast, (e) experiments on adaptation to amount of 
light. Defects in vision. Hygiene of the Eyes. Smell and Taste. 
Hearing. The Voice and Speech. Dissection of the Larynx. 

Drawings and descriptions of dissections made into book. 

Text-book : Martin's Human Body (briefer course). 

BOTANY.— Second Year, Third Term. 

1. Planting seeds (corn and beans); their structure and growth. 
2. Buds, structure, protection, arrangement, kinds, growth. 3. Study 
of early flowers, Hepatica, Spring Beauty. Trillium, Blood-root, etc. 
Study of Types: 4. Green slime (Protophyta). 5. Moss (Bryophyta). 
•6. Fern and Horsetail (Pteridophyta). 7. Scotch Pine and Austrian 
Pine (Gymnosperms). 8. Common flowering plants (Angiosperms). 

Herbarium required. Notes and drawings of plants studied. 

Text-book : Gray's School and Field Book. 

PHYSICS.— Third Year, First and Second Term. 

The topics generally indicate lines of experimental work, followed 
by study of the text-book. The movement in the study of each division 
of the subject is usually as follows: (a) Qualitative experiments by the 
student or the instructor, with preliminary definitions, (b) Quantita- 
tive experiments by the student, (c) Study of the text-book. Problems. 

(d) Recitation on both experimental work and text. 

1. Measurements of length, volume, and mass, by the metric sys- 
tem, (a) Methods of linear measurement, (b) Practice in the use of 
the graduate cylinder. Methods of correct reading. Use of Erdmann's 
float. Errors. Determination of the volume of an irregular body. 
Calibration of tubes, (c) The balance. Methods of weighing. Prac- 
tice in weighing bodies to 1 mgr. 

2. Density and Specific Gravity, (a) Determination of density of 
wood, glass, stone, iron, etc., by the balance, (b) Specific gravity of 
liquids by the specific-gravity bottle, (c) Determination of the weight 
lost by a solid immersed in a liquid, (d) Determination of specific 
gravity by immersion, (e) Liquid pressure due to weight. (/) Specific 
gravity of liquids by the method of balancing, (g) The hydrometer. 

3. Dynamics, (a) The action of a force upon a body, (o) Compo- 
sition and resolution of forces, (c) Graphic representation of forces; 
(1) acting at an angle on the same point, and (2) parallel forces acting 
at different points, on a rigid body, (d) Gravitation. Laws of motion. 

(e) Laws of falling bodies. (/) Projectiles, (g) The pendulum, (h) 
Formula for kinetic energy. 

4. Machines, (a) Development of the laws of the inclined plane, 
lever, and pulley, (b) Machines as devices for transferring energy, 
(c) General laws of machines. 

5. Hydrostatics, Hydrokinetics, Pneumatics, (a) The hydrostatic 
bellows, (b) The hydrostatic press, (c) Formula forvelocity of spout- 
ing liquids, (d) Water wheels, (e) The barometer; (/) Pumps, (g) 
The siphon. 

6. Electricity and Magnetism. (1) Frictional Electricity, (a) Two 
kinds of electrification, (b) Tests for each, (c) Electrostatic induc- 
tion, (d) The gold-leaf electroscope, (e) The electrophorus. (/) Elec- 

Illinois State Normal University. 33 

trie density, (g) Electric condensers, (h) The Leyden jar. (i) Modes 
of discharge, (j) Lightning-rods. (2). Voltaic Electricity, (a) The 
voltaic cell, (b) Construction and use of various forms of the voltaic 
cell, (c) Action of currents on magnets, (d) Construction and use of 
the tangent galvanometer, (e) Astatic and sine galvanometers. Long 
and short coil instruments. (/) Electrical resistance. Conditions af- 
fecting resistance, (g) Methods of connecting cells. Tests with gal- 
vanometer, (h) Measurement of resistance. Wheatstone's bridge. 
(3). Magnetism. Induced currents, (ft) General study of a Magnet. 

(b) Action of the attracted body on the magnet, (c) Mutual action of 
two magnets, (d) Induced magnetism. Law of induced magnets. 
(e) Mapping out magnetic fields. (/) Electro-magnets. Conditions af- 
fecting the strength of electro-magnets, (g) Methods of windingelectro- 
magnets. (h) Induced currents, (i) The Ruhmkorff coil. (4). Indus- 
trial applications of Electricity, (a) The telegraph, (b) The telephone. 

(c) The dynamo, (d) The incandescent lamp, (e) The arc light, (f) 
Methods of wiring for electric light systems, (g) Converters, (h) Prin- 
ciples of the motor. 

7. Sound, (a) Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal vibra- 
tions, (b) Sound waves. Propagation of sound, (c) Measurement of 
the velocity of sound in air and in carbon dioxide, (d) Conditions af- 
fecting pitch of a vibrating string, (e) Sounding boards. Resonance. 
(/) Coincident sound waves. Interference, (g) The musical scale. 
Absolute pitch, (h) Fundamental tones and overtones. {%) The Phono- 

8. Heat, (ft) General effects of heat on the volume of solids, 
liquids, and gases, (b) Comparative conductivity of various solids, (c) 
Radiation of heat, (d) Convection, (e) Testing thermometers. (/) 
General effects of heat upon the temperature and physical form of solids 
and liquids, (g) Curve-plotting of temperatures for heating and cooling 
liquids, (h) Determination of melting and boiling points of solids and 
liquids, (i) Distillation, (j) Latent and specific heat, (k) The steam 

9. Light, (a) Rectilinear motion of light, (b) Inverted images, 
(c) Shadows, (d) The photometer. Distance and the intensity of 
light, (e) Plane mirrors. Location of virtual imases. (f) Concave 
mirrors. Real and virtual images. Geometric constructions, (g) 
Lenses. Measurement of focal length. (7i) Decomposition and compo- 
sition of white light, (i) The rainbow, (j) Optical instruments. The 
eye. Microscopes. Telescopes. 

CHEMISTRY.— Third Year, Third Term. 

The atomic theory is made the correlating principle of the term's 
work. The general movement is such as to be a gradual development 
of this theory. The experiments are usually performed by the stu- 
dents, under direction of the instructor. 

1. The analysis of typical binary compounds, hydrochloric acid, 
water, ammonia, marsh gas. 2. Examination of the constituent ele- 
ments. 3. The synthesis of binary compounds. 4. Methods of analysis 
and synthesis. Chemical agents. 5. Volumetric relations of the ele- 
ments in each compound. 6. Chemical symbols. Nomenclature. 7. 
Laws of Gay-Lussac, definite proportions, and conservation of mass. 
8. Chemical equations. Problems. 9. Quantivalence, illustrated by the 

34 Analysis of Coukse of Study. 

typical group. 10. The analysis of nitric acid. The nitroxygen series. 
11. Law of multiple proportions. 12. Simple and compound radicals. 
13. Electrolysis. Electro-chemical series. 14. The relation of acids, 
bases and salts. 15. Familiar metals. 10. Congeners of the typical 
binary group. 17. The halogen group. 18. Familiar carbon compounds 
19. Laws of Charles and Marriotte. 20. Development of the atomic 
theory from the study of the preceding topics. 21. The law of Ampere. 
22. The phenomena of combustion. 23. Chemistry and the conserva- 
tion of energy. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT— Second Year, First Term. 

1. Necessity of government. 2. Government in the family; its pur- 
pose; nature; necessity. 3. Government in the school; its purpose; 
nature; necessity. 4. Town government. 5. County government. 6. 
State government. Historical sketch of Illinois; the northwest terri- 
tory; ordinanceof 1787; influence on the history of the state; Illinois as 
a territory; admission as a state; legal boundaries; three constitutions; 
relation of constitution to constitution of United States; legislative de- 
partment; executive department; judicial department; state boards; state 
institutions; duties of the citizen to the state: of the state to the citi- 
zen. 7. Government of the United States. United States History re- 
viewed; government of the colonies with their relation to each other and 
to England; the Revolutionary War; Declaration of Independence; 
articles of confederation; steps leading to formation of constitution; 
general analysis of the different departments of government; amend- 

In discussing the above topics care is taken to impress it upon the 
pupils, that government is constituted for the good of the people, and 
that its purpose is to protect them in the enjoyment of their rights. It 
is a creature of their own creation, intended to benefit all, and not a 
few at the expense of the many. Hence it is the duty of each to yield a 
ready obedience in order that all may receive the greatest good. 

Third Year; First, Second, Third Term. 

1. Preparatory work. McMurry's General Method, three hours a 

2. Review of psychology of attention. 

3. General examination of the subject of Geography. 

4. Illustrative lessons with children in various stages of geograph- 
ical work. Exercises conducted by teacher in charge of class, or by a 
training teacher. Members of Normal class write up notes for inspec- 
tion by teacher. 

5. (General examination of the subject of Arithmetic. 

0. Illustrative lessons with children in the various stages of the 
work. Exercises conducted by the teacher in charge of the class, or by 
a training teacher. Members of Normal class write up notes. 

7. General examination of the subject of Reading. 

8. illustrative lessons as above. 

9. Similar treatment of the remaining subjects of the Common 
School Course below the High School, so far as time will permit. 

Illinois State Normal University. 35 

Practice Work in Model School. 

Second Year; Second Term, Third Term. 
Third Year; Second Term, Third Term. 

Each Normal student is required to teach four terms in the Train- 
ing School, for forty-five minutes each day. At least one term must be 
spent in the Primary Grades. All practice work is performed under 
the immediate oversight of the training teachers. The work of criti- 
cism is both personal and general. The general criticisms are given in 
teachers' meetings, one of which is held each week. The special criti- 
cisms are given in grade meetings and in personal interviews. Pupil 
teachers must submit plans of work to their supervisor, which must be 
approved before being put into execution. They are held responsible 
for the control and general management of their classes They are ex- 
pected to make personal studies of the pupils, so that they may give 
accurate descriptions of their characters, personal peculiarities, habits 
of study, and general disposition. 

Generally each pupil teacher is under the observation of one or 
more pupil teachers, who make careful notes of the work. By this 
arrangement the training teachers are enabled to determine accurately 
the skill with which discipline is maintained in their absence. 

The practice work of the pupil teachers reaches from the first grade 
of the Primary School through the first year of the High School. In 
addition to the work of instruction, pupils are required to take charge 
of a room during opening exercises, and to have the management of 
children as much as possible. 

Frequent illustrative exercises, conducted by training teachers, are 
given to the whole body of pupil teachers. These cover a variety of 
subjects, but are usually given in those studies in which there is the 
greatest probability of lack of skill on the part of the pupil teachers. 
It is found that subjects like Natural Science and Literature afford the 
greatest difficulties to the ordinary teacher; consequently, exercises are 
given in those subjects more frequently than in any others. 

Persons desiring to fit themselves for primary teachers are per- 
mitted to put in all of their time with the training teacher having the 
lowest departments in charge. 

During recesses and noons children are under the general oversight 
of pupil teachers, who make careful studies of individual pupils as they 
manifest their dispositions in games or other recreations. 

ANCIENT HISTORY.— Second Year, Second Term. 

1. What History is; what it treats of; sources — "monuments, relics, 
records"; aids to history — Ethnology, Archaeology, Philology. 2. Di- 
visions of History: Ancient, mediaeval, modern. History a continuous 
whole. 3. Races of Mankind: White, yellow, black. The white or 
Caucasian the historic race. 4. Geographical sketch of the ancient 
oriental nations. Historical darkness in Northern Asia; twilight in 
Central Asia; sunlight in Western Asia. 5. Hindoostan. 6. China. 7. 
Egypt. 8. Chaldaea. 9. Assyria. 10. Babylonia. 11. The Hebrews. 
12. Phoenicia. 13. Persia. 14. Greece. 15. Rome. The Hebrews, 
Greeks, and Romans, the principal factors in ancient civilization. 

36 Analysis of Course of Study. 

MEDLEVAL HISTORY.— Third Year, First Term. 

Rome under Augustus; public buildings; social conditions; nature 
of the government. Rome under Nero; Vespasian; Titus; Trajan; the 
Antonines; Diocletian; Constantine the Great; Christianity; Constanti- 
nople. The G ths: Theodosius; Alaric; Attila; Genseric. Fall of the 
Roman Empire in the west. Relation of the fall to world-history. 
Roman literature; orators; historians; poets; gladiators; slavery. The 
Teutonic tribes; conversion of the Franks, etc. Monasticism; fusion of 
the Latin and Teutonic peoples; character of Teutonic legislation. 
The Empire of the East; becomes Greek. Mohammed and the Saracen?: 
conquests; east; west; north; contact with Roman Empire of the east. 
Crusade: Cause; results; influence on civilization. Charlemagne: do- 
minion; purpose; achievements. The Northmen: rise of the Papal 
power; mission of Rome; iconoclasts; feudalism; chivalry. The Celts in 
Britain; the Romans: Saxons; Alfred the Great; Norman Conquest; 
conflict of kings with the church; Magna Charta; first Parliament; war 
of the Roses; the Tudors; Henry VIII.; the reformation: Mary I.; 
Elizabeth; the Stuarts; war between Charles I. and Parliament; Crom- 
well; the restoration. France, Germany, Spain, Italy. Luther: The 
reformation in Germany. The Ottoman Empire. Downfall of Con- 
stantinople. Influence of fall on Europe. Growth of cities. Conflict 
between cities and nobility. Printing. Discovery of America. 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.— Second Year, Third Term. 

Anatomy and physiology of the globe. Life of the globe, kinds of 
life, importance of contour; Relief; Relative Position; Analogies. 
Guyot's Seven Laws of Relief: Relief of Ocean beds; formation of the 
Continents. Land and Sea Climate: The Winds; the water carries dis- 
tribution of the rains. Marine Currents: Cause; effects. Contrasts of 
the three continents of the north, and those of the south. The part 
which < ach of the northern continents has performed in history. Con- 
trast of the Old World and the New. Characteristics of the Old World; 
of the New. Old World excels in animal life; the New in vegetable 
life. Law of life in the Vegetable Kingdom; Animal Kingdom; Man an 
exception. The Continents and Civilization. Inability of the Old 
World to attain the end of humanity; Assistance given by the New 
World. Action and reaction of the two worlds upon each other. The 
result, a higher form of civilization. Geographical march of History. 
"Westward the Course of Empire takes its way." Science and faith. 

OUTLINE OF WORK IN RHETORIC— Second Year, Second Term. 

1. Purity.— (a) Good Use; (b) Divided Usage, Ancient Usage; (c) 
Barbarisms: (t?) Solecisms; (e) Improprieties. 

2. Diction.— (a) Principles of Choice; (b) Number of Words; (c) 
Arrangement of Words. 

Fundamental Principles underlying rules for Purity, Clearness, 
Force, and Elegance. 

Kind* of Composition.— (a) Description; (b) Narration; (c) Argu- 
mentative Composition. 

38 Analysis of Course of Study. 

An effort is made to awaken the critical instinct in the hope of se- 
curing three ends: A purer diction in speech; a greater enjoyment of 
good English in books: and an appreciation of the fundamental qualities 
of good composition, unity, directness, clearness, and simplicity. Orig- 
nal Composition. 

LITERATURE.— Second Year, Third Term, and Third Year, First 
and Second Term. 

The work in Literature runs through three terms, one of which is 
given up wholly to Shakespeare. Twenty-seven weeks are left, there- 
fore, for the study of the whole body of English literature. The his- 
tory of its growth is taken up in brief outline, to give the student some 
notion of the relation of the literature to the historic development of the 
English people. The following points are treated, some of them con- 
sidered at some length, some of them left with a bare mention: 

1. The Saxons: Their character as seen in early literature. Be- 
owulf, Caedmon, Cynewulf, The Fight at Maldon, Baeda, Alfred, The 
English Chronicle. 

2. The Normans: Their origin, and character. 

3. The Norman Conquest: Its Nature, its effects on Language and 
Literature. Two literatures on English Soil; French and Saxon, or Semi- 
Saxon; Chronicles; Homilies; Oimulum; Layamon's Brut; Poetic Ro- 
mances; Lyrics. 

4. Early Modern English. Literature of Religious and Social or 
Political Reform. Wiclif, Langland, Pecock. 

5. Literature Proper: Gower, Chaucer, Ballads, Malory. 

6. The Revival of Learning. Caxton's Work. Social, Political, 
and Religious Criticism. Sir Thomas Moore, Tyndale, and other contro- 
versialists and translators of the Bible, Skelton, Sir David "Lyndsay. 

7. Artistic Growth; the Italian Influence. Surrey and Wyatt, and 
the Sonnet and -Blank Verse; Translations: Italian and Spanish Ro- 
mances; the Tudors' love of masques, shows, and the drama; the pop- 
ular taste. 

8. Growth of the National Spirit. The English Reformation, polit- 
ical as much as religious; Struggles with Rome, Spain, France; part 
played by Mary of Scotland; Victory over the Spanish Armada; Drake's 
and Raleigh's voyages and exploits at sea; conquest and colonization. 

9. The Literature of the Age of Elizabeth an outgrowth of the 
many-sided Life of the Time: Growth of Satire; of Political, Religious, 
and Social Controversy; of the Literature of Travel and Adventure; of 
Romantic Narrative in Prose and Poetry; of Patriotic Song and Story; 
of Lyric Poetry, and of the Drama, involving al the other literary 
forms. Gascoigne, Sackville, Nash, Spenser, Sidney, Hakluyt, Raleigh, 
Frobisher, Warner, Daniel, Drayton, Lyly, Green,' -Peele, Marlowe, 
Shakespeare, Bacon, Hooker. 

10. The Stuarts and Puritan England; Social Demoralization; De- 
cadence! of the Drama and of the Poetic Impulse; Prose rising in im- 
portance: Rise of Biography; Growth of History; Political and Relig- 
ious Controversies, continued. Ben Jonson, Beaumont and Fletcher, 
Webster. Thos Fuller. Jeremy Taylor, Sir Thomas Browne, Izaak Wal- 
ton, William Prvnnc, Paeon. Knolles. Raleigh, Hall, Donne. 

Illinois State Normal University. 39 

11. The Civil War and the Commonwealth; Political Controversy; 
Religions Controversy; Court and Cavalier Songs; Social Questions; 
History largely Biographical; Memoirs. Milton, Suckling, Herrick, 
Cowley, Lovelace, Bunyan, Evelyn, Clarendon, Hobbes. 

12. The Res'oration; Corrupt Society; Corrupt Literature; Satire; 
Political, Social, and Philosophical Discussions. The Dramatists: Con- 
greve, Dryden, Wycherly, etc.; Satirists, Dryden, Butler, Pepys, Bur- 
net, Locke, Algernon Sidney, Neville, Milton. 

13. The Revolution and Age of Anne and the Georges; Prose still 
growing in importance as Political and Social Questions multiply; The 
Periodic Essay; The Newspaper; the Novel. Pope, Locke, Swift, De- 
foe, Gay, Prior, Warburton, Bolingbroke, Addison, Steele, Richardson, 
Fielding, Steine, Smollett, Goldsmith. Dr. Johnson, Burke, Adam Smith, 

14. Revival of Poetry. Cowper, Gray. Collins, Burns, Goldsmith, 
Crabbe, Thomson, Chatterton, Blake, Scott. 

15. Period of the French Revolution; Return to Nature; Love of 
Man; Thought for the Poor; Reform. Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, 
Shelley, Keats. 

16. Latest Period, in part a continuing of the Revolutionary Period, 
in part a new growth of the Scientific, Critical, and Humanitarian Im- 
pulses; History; Novels; Criticism. Tennyson, Carlyle, the Brownings, 
Matthew Arnold, Emerson, Hawthorne, Whittier, Lowell, Longfellow, 
Dr. Holmes, Bryant, Thoreau, Ruskin, George Eliot, Thackeray, Dick- 
ens, George Meredith, etc. 

17. Less time is given to this historic outline than to the study of a 
few authors in their best works. The authors studied with sume care 
during the last year have been : (a) Chaucer: The Prologue, Knight's 
Tale, and Nonne Prestes Tale; (b) Ballads : Sir Patrick Spens, Chevy 
Chace, Edom o' Gordon, Lyke-Wake Dirge, etc; (c) Spenser : Two 
Cantos of the Faery Queen; (d) Shakespeare: King Lear, Hamlet. Mac- 
beth, Coriolanus, Midsummer Night's Dream, Othello; (e) Bacon : Se- 
lected Essays; (/) Milton : Paradise Lost, Books I-II; Lycidas; (g) 
Charles Lamb : Selections from Essays of Elia; (h) Thackeray: Selec- 
tions trom Roundabout Papers; (i) Robert Browning : Selected Poems; 
(./) Elizabeth Barrett Browning : Selected Poems; (k) Tennyson: In 

In addition to these works, members of the class are assigned other 
works for private reading; essays are prepared upon works thus read, 
and presented before the class, and criticised. 


1. Plays read: King Lear; Hamlet; Macbeth; Coriolanus; Mid- 
summer Night's Dream; Othello. 

2. Object sought: An intelligent reading of dramatic literature. 

3. Points emphasized: 1. The Drama is Literature, not Philoso- 
phy, not Ethics, not History; yet, the Drama is philosophical, ethical, 
historical. 2 Whatever philosophical, ethical, or historical lessons the 
drama has to teach, these lessons are best reached through a sympa- 
thetic study of the dra-ma as Literary Form. Therefore, in the first 
dramas read we follow closely the Dramatic Construction, observing 
the Induction of the action, the Development, the Climax, the Evolu 
tion, and the Catastrophe. 

40 Analysis of Course of Study. 

4. Along with Dramatic Construction, and belonging to it, we study 
Characterization; Dramatic Motives; Dramatic Dialogue; Soliloquy; 
Sequence of Scenes and Actions; Dramatic Illusion; Dramatic Time; 
Tragic Retribution; Differences between Tragedy and Comedy. After 
the class has become somewhat accustomed to following the dramatic 
development of an action, less close attention is paid to this in class, 
and we proceed at once to the characterization and motiving, and the 
consideration of the play as a revelation of life. 

5. Lear and Hamlet are read in the class-room and discussed at 
greatest length. Macbeth is then studied, somewhat less closely, but 
with care. The others are read in private by all the members of the 
class; essays are then prepared by all; two or three of these essays are 
read in class and form the basis of a general discussion lasting two or 
three days for each play. In all this work, the student is urged to post- 
pone the reading of commentators until he has studied the plays them- 
selves, and begun, at least, to form his own judgments. Independence 
of opinion, and a willingness to hold the judgment in suspense and 
wait for further light are always encouraged. 

GEOMETRY.— Second Year; Second Term, Third Term. 

The course extends over two terms of twelve weeks each, and in- 
cludes the ordinary High School Course in plane, solid, and spherical 
Geometry. Wells's Geometry is the text. About one-third of the time 
is devoted to original exercises. Special attention is directed to the 
mechanism of deductive reasoning, the earlier demonstrations being 
developed in complete syllogisms. The several stages of a demonstra- 
tion are seen and strict conformity to the type required. Review exer- 
cises include classifications of the established truths of the science and 
schemes for tracing proofs to the original definitions and axioms upon 
which they rest. Forms of geometrical notation are discussed and con- 
siderable practice is given in brief forms of written work. Two main 
ends are kept in view: to equip the student with the forms of deductive 
reasoning, and to make the study a drill in precise thinking and accu- 
rate, perspicuous expression. 

PSYCHOLOGY.— Second Year, First Term. 

1. Psychology and Its Relations to the Teacher. 

2. The Educational Limitations of Psychology. 

3. The Treatment of Psychology adopted. 

4. The Bases of Psychical Life: (a) Sensation, (b) Interest, (c) 

5. The Psychical Processes. (a) Introduction: 1. Classification 
of contents of our minds. 2. Classification of processes corresponding 
to these contents, (b) The Processes: 1. Non-voluntary attention. 2. 
Association. 3, Voluntary attention. 4. Educational principles. 5. 
Apperception and Retention. 

6. Forms of Intellectual Development: (a) Principles of intel- 
lectual development. (b) Stages of intellectual development: 1. Train- 
ing of perception. 2. Training of the memory. 3. Training of thought. 

7. The Forms of Emotional Development: (a) Conditions of in- 
terest, (h) Principles of emotional growth, (c) The forms, or stages 
of emotional growth. 

Illinois State Normal University. 41 

8. Forms of Volitional Development: (a) Factors of volitional de- 
velopment, (b) Stages of volitional development. 

9. Mind and Budy: (a) Importance of body for soul, (b) Structure 
of nervous system in man. (c) Elem ntary properties of nerve struc- 
ture, (d) Psychological equivalents, (e) Localization of function. (/) 
Educational principles. 

10. Summary of Principles: (a) Bases of instruction, (b) Ends of 
instruction, (c) Methods of instruction, (d) Relation of knowledge, 
feeling, and will, (e) Criticism of maxima 

11. The Method of Interrogation, Art of Questioning: (a) Introduc- 
tion, (b) Objects of questioning: 1. Testing retention. 2. Training of 
apperception, (c) Qualifications of the questioner, (d) Matter and 
form of questions, (e) Matter and form of answers. 

Text book: Applied Psychology. McLellan and Dewey. 

PSYCHOLOGY.— (Dewey.)— Third Year, First 21 Weeks. 


1. Science and Method of Psychology, (a) Subject matter of Psy- 
chology, (b) Method of Psychology: (1) Introspective; (2) Experi- 
mental; (3) Comparative; (4) Objective. 

2. Mind and Modes of Activity, (a) Aspects of Consciousness, (b) 
Relations to each other, (e) Relations to the whole self. 

3. Knowledge. 

1. Elements of Knowledge : (a) Sensation in General. 1. Physical 
Stimulus; 2. Psychical Factor; 3. Relations of Psychical and Phys- 
ical; 4. Functions of Sensation in Psychical Life. (b) Special 
Senses — Relations to Touch. 1. Touch: I. Weber's Law and Psycho- 
physical Methods. II. Muscular Sensation. 2. Smell. 3. Ta>te. 4. 
Hearing. 5. Sight. 6. Temperature. 7. General Sensation. 

2. Processes of Knowledge, (a) Nature nf Problem. 1. Sensations 
and Known Objects. 2. The Knowing Self, (b) Apperception. 1. 
Problem of Apperception. 2. Kinds of Apperception, (c) Association: 

1. Conditions. 2. Forms. I. Simultaneous or Fusion. II. Successive: 
By Contiguity; by Similarity. III. Function of Association, (d) Dis- 
sociation. 1. Relation to Association. 2. Conditions. 3. Functions 
in Psychical Life, (e) Attention 1. Attention as Selecting Activity. 

2. Attention as Adjusting Activity. 3. Attention as Relating Activity. 
(/) Retention. 

3. Stages of Knowledge. (a) Perception. 1. Of Objects. 2. Of 
Space. 3. Of Externality in General, (b) Memory 1. Definition and 
Problem. 2. The Memory Image. 3. Memory of Time. 4. Self as 
Past and Present, (c) Imagination. 1. Definition. 2. Ideals in Imag- 
ination. 3. Practical and Theoretical, (d) Thinking. 1. Definition 
and Division. 2. Conception; Growth of Knowledge. 3. Judgment; 
Belief. 4. Reasoning. I. A priori and a posteriori. II. Inductive 
and Deductive. 5. Systematization. (e) Intuition. 1. Intuition of 
the World. 2. Intuition of Self. 3. Intuition of God. 

Text-book: Dewey's Psychology. 


Analysis of Course of Study. 

Scheme of Classification of the Philosophy of Education: 
Part I. Education in its General Idea. 

( Possible only to self-active beings. 

A. Its Natures Education by Divine Providence, by experience, or by teachers. 

( Relates to body, intellect, and will; must be systematic; conducted in 

( Self-estrangement, work and play. 

B. Its Form.. ■] Habit. 

( Authority, obedience, punishment. 

( Subjective limit in the pupil's capacity. 

C. Its Limits. ■< Objective limit in the pupil's wealth and leisure. 

I Absolute limit in the pupil's completion of school work. 

Part II. Education in its Special Elements. 

A. Physical. 

Sexual (omitted). 

B. Intellectual. 

I Intuitive— sense-perception. 
Psychological epochs-! Imaginative— fancy and memory. 

Logical Order. 

f Of development of the pupil. 
J Of development of the subject. 

^ Analytic 


| Of demonstration 


f Tupil's capacity. 

Pupil's act of learning. 

Method < f instruction. 





Living example. 



('. Will Training-! 

I I 

f Social Usages. 

i The Virtues. 

Moral Training -< Discipline. 

I Character. 
(a) Feeling; (b) Symbols; (c) Dogmas, 
(a) Self consecration; (b) Ceremonies; (c) Rec- 
Religious Education . { onciliation with one's lot. 

| (a) Family worship; (b) Union with church; 
I. (c) Religious insight. 

Part III. Education in its Particular Systems. 

f Passive 

A. National \ Active 

( Family— China. 

< < 'aste— India. 

| Monkish— Thibet. 

i Military — Persia. 

1 Priestly— Egypt. 

| Industrial — Phoenicia. 

( ^Esthetic— Rome. 
t Individual •< Practical— Greece. 

( Abstract individual— German tribes. 
B. Theocratic — Jews. 

f .Monkish. f j Secular Life. 

C. Humanitarian 

( 'hivalnc. 

or < 'hristian . ; ( itizen 

For special callings ....■< Jesuistic. 
( Pietistic. 
1 To achieve an ideal of j Humanist, 

culture | Philanthropist. 
(_ For free citizenship. 

Text-book: The Philosophy of Education— Rosenkranz. 

44 Analysis of Course of Study. 

The High School. 

This department is especially intended to prepare pupils for col- 
lege or for business life. The n quirements for admission presuppose 
the completion of the ordinary grammar school work. The course of 
study is arranged with reference to admission to Harvard College. 
Graduates of this department are admitted without examination to the 
University of Illinois, the University of Michigan, Amherst, Dart- 
mouth, Smith, Williams, Vassar, and Wellesley Colleges. The princi- 
pal is a Dartmouth graduate, the first assistant a Williams graduate, 
and the second assistant a graduate of the North-Western University. 
Tuition is charged at the rate of $39 a year. Considerable freedom 
is permitted in the selection of studies. Students in this depart- 
ment are permitted to take work in the Normal Department without 
additional charge. Many applicants for the Normal Department can- 
not be received because they desire to elect their studies. This they 
can be permitted to do, under certain limitations, by entering the High 
School. The General Course gives an excellent preparation for bus- 

CLASSICAL COURSE.— First Class, First Term. 

Latin — Harkness's Grammar, Jones's Lessons. Mathematics — 
Arithmetic, Normal Course. English — Analysis, Reed and Kellogg. 

Second Term: Latin — Harkness's Grammar, Jones's Lessons. Ge- 
ography — Guyot's. English — Composiiion. 

Third Term: Latin— Cassar, Tne Helvetian War; Composition, 
Collar's. History — United States. Reading — Selections. 

Second Class — First Term: Latin — Caesar, Campaign against Ario- 
vistus, The Belgian Confederacy; Composition, Collars. Greek — Good- 
win's Grammar, White's Lessons. Zoology — Colton's. 

Second Term: Latin — Cassar, Books III. and IV.; Composition, 
Collar's. Greek — Grammar, Reader or Anabasis. History — Ancient 
History. English — Rhetoric, Hill's. 

Third Term: Latin — Sallust's Catiline; Composition, Collar's. 
Greek — Anabasis or Hellenica; Composition. Mathematics — Algebra, 

Junior Class — First Term: Latin — Cicero, Orations against Cati- 
line; Sight Reading; Composition, Collar's. Greek — Anabasis or Hel- 
lenica; Sight Reading, Kendrick's Selections; Composition. Mathemat- 
ics Algebra, Wentworth's. 

Second Term: Latin — Cicero, Four Orations, including the Ma- 
nilian Law; Sight Heading; Composition, Collar's. Greek — Hellenica 
and Plato, Goodwin's Selections; Sight Reading; Composition. His- 
tory—Old Greek Life, Mahaffy's. Mathematics— £lane Geometry, Wells's. 

Third Term: Latin — Ovid; Lincoln's Selections; Sight Reading, 
Ovid: Composition, Collar's. Greek- Herodotus, Goodwin's Selections; 
Composition. History Pennell's Ancient Rome. Mathematics, Solid 
< teometry, Wells's. 

Illinois State Normal University. 45 

SeniorClass — First Term: Latin — Vergil, Books I-IV.; SightRead- 
ing, Vergil. German — Comfort's German Coarse. Physics — Avery's. 

Second Term: Latin — Vergil, Books V-VL; The Eclogues. Ger- 
man — Comfort's German Course; Selections from Whitney's Texts. 
Physics — Avery's. Physiology — Martin's Human Body (but one re- 
quired). Reading and Themes — Selections from Shakespeare. 

Third Term: Greek — Iliad, Books I— III. *German — Selections from 
Whitney's Texts. Political Economy — Walker's. 

GENERAL COURSE.— First Class, First Term. 

Latin — Harkness's Grammar, Jones's Lessons. Mathematics — 
Arithmetic, Normal Course. English — Analysis, Reed and Kellogg. 

Second Term : Latin — Harkness's Grammar, Jones's Lessons. Ge- 
ography— Guyot's. English— Composition. 

Third Term : Latin — Caesar, the Helvetian War; Composition, Col- 
lar's. History — United States. Reading— Selections. 

Second Class, First Term : Latin— Caesar, Campaign against Ario- 
vistus; The Belgian Confederacy; Composition, Collar's. Drawing — 
Prang's series. Zoology— Colton's. 

Second Term : Latin — Caasar, Books III. and IV; Composition, Col- 
lar's. History — Ancient History. English— Rhetoric, Hill's. 

Third Term: Latin — Sallust's Catiline; Composition, Collar's. 
English — Criticism. Mathematics — Algebra, Wentworth's. 

Junior Class, First Term: Latin — Cicero, Orations against Cati- 
line; Sight Reading; Composition, Collar's. English — English Litera- 
ture. Mathematics — Algebra, Wentworth's. 

Second Term : Latin — Cicero, Four Orations, including the Manil- 
ian Law; Sight Reading; Composition, Collar's. Physiology — Martin's 
Human Body. Mathematics — Plane Geometry, Wells's. 

Third Term : Latin — Ovid, Lincoln's Selections; Sight Reading, 
Ovid; Composition, Collar's. History — Pennell's Ancient Rome. Botany 
— Gray's. Mathematics — Solid Geometry, Wells's. 

Senior Class, First Term : Latin — Vergil, Books I-IV.; Sight Read- 
ing, Vergil. German — Comfort's German Course. Civics— United 
States and Illinois, Andrews's. Physics— Avery's. 

Second Term : Latin — Vergil, Books V-VL; The Eclogues. German 
— Comfort's German Course; Selections from Whitney's Texts. Reading 
and Themes — Selections from Shakespeare. Physics — Avery's. 

Third Term : German — Selections from Whitney's Texts. Physi- 
cal Geography — Guyot's Earth and Man. Political Economy — Walker's. 
Chemistry — Avery's. 

An additional year in German is optional. 

The Grammar School. 

The Grammar School is intended for those who wish to prepare for 
the Normal or High School, or for general business. 

Young men and women not fully prepared for the Normal Depart- 
ment are enabled to enter after spending a term or two in the rigorous 
preparatory drill of the Grammar School; while, to those who are pre- 

40 Analysis of Course of Study. 

paring for the High School, it offers excellent academic training. It is 
in the direct charge of a Principal, and his assistant teachers are under 
the constant supervision of the Principal Training Teacher. 

Pupils often fail in their effort to get a higher education, simply 
because their elementary education has been poor; hence, great care is 
taken that each shall be well grounded in elementary knowledge. 

Those who wish merely a common-school education will find the 
course comprehensive enough for all ordinary business purposes. Much 
care is taken that pupils shall become good penmen, and that they shall 
acquire a ready knowledge of arithmetic, in order that they may make 
good accountants. Those more advanced will have the opportunity of 
studying bookkeeping, taught according to the most practical methods. 

The grading is such that pupils may take the work which they are 
best fitted to do; and, during the second year, those who may wisely do 
so are allowed to take any of the languages in the High School. 

The moral influence of the school and its surroundings is good. 
Vicious boys who are outcasts from other schools will not find admit- 
tance here. Saloons and other places of evil resort are not allowed in 
the town. Tuition is charged at the rate of $25 a year. 

The Intermediate and Primary Schools. 

The Intermediate and Primary Grades occupy four rooms on the 
first floor of the Training School building. Tuition is charged at the 
rate of $15 a year in the Intermediate grades. No tuition charge is 
made in the Primary grades. 

Plans for Teaching. 

The following "Plans for Teaching," prepared by a member of the 
senior class, will illustrate the work done on this line. These are fol- 
lowed closely in the instruction of a class in the Model School. Before 
they are put into operation they must receive the approval of the train- 
ing teacher in charge of the work. 



General Pl< in. — The aim of this work is to excite an interest in 
this animal, and to create a study of the adaptation of the organs for 
the functions performed by them; moreover, a study of the animal as to 
its value in nature. It is not the purpose to start with a classification, 
but many points are to be indicated which will distinguish the ox from 
some animals and identify it with others. Inasmuch as the child's 
mind looks for the "why'' of things, great stress in all the work is put 
on causal relations. No attempt is to be made to point out only the 
wonderful or tin; great body of facts that might be learned, but they 
are to be taught largely by their own experience or by direct investiga- 
tion. It is intended that they shall have an ever widening interest in 

Illinois State Normal University. 47 

very common things. Aside from the value of such study for awaken- 
ing interest, it is possible, by the study of a type of ruminants, for the 
child to lind himself possessed of the knowledge necessary to form that 
group when it shall appear in later work. In presenting the subject in 
order to aid the child in grasping the points and in reproducing the sub- 
ject after it is developed, the following topics are to be used : 1. A ru- 
minant. Why chew a cud ? When? 2. How the ox bites off grass. 
The teeth. 3. The head and nose. How adapted for use. 4. The 
tongue, and how the ox eats mush. 5. The stomach. Trace the pass- 
age of food. 6. Horns, and their uses, (a) to the animal, (b) to man. 
Eyes. 7. Hoofs, hide, hair, and their uses. 8. Bones. Uses. What 
is made of them ? 9. Parts used for food. Dairy products. 10. Rela- 
tives of the ox. Uses. The work is to be divided into five lessons and 
the subject matter indicated by the outline is to be unified further in 
the statement of aims. 


Aim. — We will learn about an animal that chews a cud. 

Preparation. — (Have a section drawing of the four parts of the 
stomach of an ox snowing the passages for food.) Name some animals 
that chew a cud (cow, sheep, and possibly the camel or deer will be 
given.) The cow and ox are what we shall study. What does the ox 
eat ? Does he chew his food ? The ox is a very common animal but it is 
peculiar in that it chews a cud. What is meant by chewing a cud ? Is 
it different from other chewing ? (Find out all that is known about the 

Presentation — The coarse food passes quickly from the mouth into 
No. 1, and is there soaked and passed into No. 2 and from there back 
through the gullet in little wads into the mouth. There it is chewed 
very thoroughly and again swallowed. This time it passes into stomach 
No. 3, and from there it is squeezed into No. 4, where most of the di- 
gestion takes place. (Have a pupil recite.) Is there anything strange 
about this? Any question. (Possibly there will be an important ques- 
tion.) Well, 1 will ask you: How do you think the food falls into No. 
1, the first time it is swallowed, and into No. 3, when it is swallowed 
the second time. (Try a few answers.) I will show you : Here is a 
rubber tube with a slit near the end. If I put a large pea through the 
tube, where will it come out? (Through the slit.) If now I put a very 
small pea through, it does not stop at the slit but goes on through. Can 
you now answer the question about the stomach ? Repeat the ques- 
tion. Answer. (Try several.) Another question : How is the food 
squeezed out of No. 1 into No. 2, and from No. 2 into No. 3 ? How does 
the food get into No. 4? How are these muscles arranged? (Show by 
a ready free-hand drawing.) How does the ox get his cud up to his 
mouth and back again? (Show again with the tube.) There are 
muscles around the gullet as are my fingers around this tube. If the 
ox wishes to belch up the food you see he will shorten those behind the 
wad and thus press it along. 


Aim. — We want to know more about this cud making and cud 
chewing machinery. 

Preparation. — (Have the stomachs of an ox present and show clearly 
to all each of the four parts.) Here is the paunch. Notice what a large 
sack it is. See these muscles in the walls. We will cut into this 

Illinois State Normal University. 49 

paunch. See these dark hair tilings. What are they for ? Well, the 
food is borne into — No. 2. Here it is. We'll cut it open. Ah, what 
does this look like? (Like honey-comb.) Yes, and so this stomach is 
called a honey-comb stomach. In this honey-comb the cuds are fitted 
for chewing-. How is the cud carried to the month ? (By action of 
muscles.) Let us find these muscles. Where does the food go next? 
(In stomach No. 3.) Here it is. It is large and round and is called 
the leaflet. Let us cut into it. Do you see these leaves or folds ? This 
stomach is sometimes called the many ply. Do you see why? (Many 
folds.) The food next goes into No. 4, this long stomach called the 
rennet. Do you know what the walls of this stomach are used for ? 
(In making cheese.) Here the food is digested the most. An animal 
with such an apparatus as this is called a ruminant, because it rumin- 
ates or chews its cud. I will write that word. 1. A ruminant. Why 
does it chew? When? (Have a pupil recite.) 

Presentation. — What kind of teeth are necessary for chewing ? 
(Blunt teeth.) How does the ox bite off grass? (Nose out.) What 
teeth, then, do you think are wanting ? (Upper front teeth.) How is 
the head adapted for grazing ? (Long nose.) Describe the tip of the 
nose. (Tough, without hair, and covered with sweat.) I will write 
another topic. (Pupils recite.) 2. How the ox bites off grass. The 
teeth. 3, The head and nose. How adapted for use. (Recite.) How 
does the ox use his tongue ? How differ from a cat's tongue ? How 
does the ox swallow ? How drink ? How eat mush ? 4. The tongue, 
and how an ox eats mush. (Recite.) 5. The stomach. Trace the 


Aim. — Let us study the ox's means of protection, defense, and 

Preparation. — How does the ox defend himself? (By hooking, 
kicking, stamping, running, etc.) What is their clothing? (Hide and 
hair.) Their language? (Bellowing.) 

Presentation. — What does the animal use in hooking? (Horns.) 
What are horns ? How grow? Rings. Use to the animal ? (To get 
food for itself.) Injury to fatting cattle? Tell of dehorning. Uses of 
horn to man ? (Powder horns, buttons, handles, and ornaments.) Re- 
cite on this topic. 6. Horns and their uses (1) to the animal, (2) to 
man. What is the organ of sight? What color? (Brown.) With 
what does the animal kick ? What is peculiar about the feet ? (Cloven 
hoofed.) How many toes ? (Four.) How does the animal walk ? (On 
his toes.) Of what use are hoofs to the animal ? To man ? (Glue and 
neat's foot oil.) (Recite.) Topic 7. Hoofs, hide, and hair, and their 
uses. (Let several recite.) How is leather tanned? 


Aim. — Let us study more of the uses of this animal. 

Preparation. — What have you noticed on signs ? (Beef, hides, 
horns, and tallow.) Where is beef prepared? (Slaughterhouse ) What 
is done with hides ? (Sent to a tannery.) 

Presentation. — Where is beef sold? (Butcher shop.) What kinds 
of beef are there ? (Steak, veal, tongue, roast, etc.) Where is steak 
found ? What is veal ? What is tallow used for ? (Candles, oiling.) 

50 Analysis of Course of Study. 

What is. tripe ? (Walls of the stomach.) Who of you like liver ? Who, 
tongue? Who, heart? (Recite.) Parts used for food. What are 
dairy products? (Milk, butter, and cheese.) Where are there great 
dairies? (Elgin, New York state, etc.) Tell about a creamery, a cheese 
factory, and Jersey cream. (Recite.) 


Aim. — We will study some of the relatives of the ox and their value, 

Preparation. — (Show a number of pictures of animals of this fam- 
ily, and related animals.) Name some. 

Presentation. — There are wild cattle now in North and South 
America, but they are not native here. The Spanish brought the ox 
and cow over with them Great herds have gone wild since. There is 
also a wild animal much like the ox. What is it? (Bison.) It has been 
hunted so much that it has nearly disappeared. Describe a bison. (Re- 
produce about the bison.) (Show the buffalo pictures.) Here are some 
strange animals — the zebu, the yak, and the gnu. These are used in 
India. The zebu resembles an ox with a hump on his back; the yak 
resembles the goat; and the gnu resembles a horse, a buffalo, and a deer 
in appearance and action. (Reproduce.) The deer is an interesting 
animal. It is generally wild. The body is not much larger than a 
sheep, but it has longer legs, and larger, bony horns. There are many 
kinds of deer. The reindeer is a large variety, and is of great use to 
the people of the Arctic countries. Can you tell me of how much use? 
(Tell of deer.) The elk and the moose are allies to the ox; so also the 
chamois and the ibex. Tell what you can of these. 

Comparison. — Which is of more value, the ox or the sheep? Why? 
Which is of more value, the sheep or the goat? Why? These are all 
animals related to the ox. Let us compare the ox with the horse. 
Which is more valuable, the horse or the cow? (Let several take part 
until there is much enthusiasm.) Review by topics and let us see how 
clearly we can talk on each topic. Some time will be spent in drawing 
the stomach of an ox, both outside and inside views. 

J. A. Dixon. 

Criticisms Upon Work of Pupil-Teachers. 

As has been stated, each pupil-teacher is generally observed by one 
or more Normal students. These critics report their criticisms to the 
training teachers. The following '"Report of Observation" illustrates the 
work attempted in this direction: 

Report of Observation in Model School. 

Tuesday morning, April 4, I was directed to observe work done in 
the lower seventh Geography class, taught by Miss M. 

Miss M. and tin; class were strangers to each other, and the pres- 
ence of an observer at this time may have made Miss M.'s position 
somewhat more trying, yet it was an excellent opportunity for the ex- 
hibition of self-control and class government on the part of the teacher. 
The first few days seem to decide largely the character of tin; school 
and whether the pupils are, to rule or to be ruled. In going before the 
class as a new teacher. Miss M. could be no more than what she simply is, 
and her real status was very soon an evident fact to the class. The 
genius of self-control and of the control of others may be more natural 

Illinois State Normal University. 51 

to some than to others, yet each is a thing in which we may not be so well 
accomplished that we may not improve. Miss M. was further embar- 
rassed by an error in the assigning of the lesson, for which, however, 
she was not responsible. She had prepared a lesson on the Rhino 
River, and the class had partly prepared a lesson on Illinois. Under 
the circumstances she did very well, but many of her questions were 
pointless, owing to lack of self command. 

In the ensuing lessons which Miss M. assigned there could be noticed 
a certain logical proceeding in the investigation of topics, which sug- 
gested an outline in the mind of the teacher. In this respect the work, 
as work, was very good. Barring a few errors of omission and com- 
mission, noted further on, I would not report unfavorably on Miss M.'s 
instruction, though itmay be considerably improved, but will pass on to 
some account of her government. First, however, I wish to record a 
dissenting opinion as to the content of the work. I do not think the 
minutiae of the work done on the Rhine profitable to the pupils. 
Granting that the Rhine is an historic river, I do not see that we, as 
Americans, need to pay special homage to it. Considering the wide field 
of geographical knowledge, there are certainly other greater facts 
than the minutiae of the twists, crooks, turns to the N. E., N. W., N. 
N. W., the particular width of the river at one portion of its course, 
where "flat boats and rafts sail along'" it. So much for my individual 

Miss M. would exhibit more tact if she would have all members 
of the class responsibly busy with the lesson. There would then be 
considerably less of the appearance of government required, and her 
positive, aggressive, self-assertive I would not be so noticeable and so 
objectionable. "I want you to do this," '.'I will have that," "I will not 
have so much noise," etc. This implies a threat and suggests the ab- 
sence of the power necessary to enforce the thing stated. It begets a 
pupil's antagonism, it seems to me. There should be no doubt about 
misconduct and its consequences, and there should be very little said 
about it, The commands, "Keep still," "Remember;'* the statements, 
"When we get quiet we will go on, and not before," "I will not have 
noise," suggest that each pupil should be so busy that there would be 
no time for unnecessary noise. The teacher would do well to commit 
herself to but few statements, and then adhere to those few. The noise 
continued. The next who "spoke out" was to be sent from the room 
to return and recite at 3 o'clock, but was not sent. In these ways con- 
trol is soon lost. The training teacher's entrance at one of these stormy 
periods was like oil on troubled waters. 

Although we are dealing with Young America, to whom, as an in- 
tegral part of his experience, the rationale of all things has been ex- 
plained, I do not think it especially necessary for the teacher to explain 
her reasons, aims, wishes, intentions, etc., which pertain simply and 
solely to the teacher as teacher. If the teacher sees fit to do certain 
things in certain ways let them be done in those ways and no questions 
asked. This is the practice of despotism, and is directly opposed to 
democratic American ideas of "why and wherefore." The despotic 
method was and is proper for those who were and are incapable of 
proper self-control, or, I may say, self-directing. Common school, and 
most graded school pupils are included in this list. 

Some of the specific things which I would criticise are the loud 
voices of some of the pupils, and occasionally of the teacher. This 
latter was intended probably to "rise to the exigencies of the occasion." 

52 Analysis of Course of Study. 

Illinois was pronounced Illinois, The arsenal a1 Springfield, .Mass.. was 
described and allowed to pass as at Springfield, 111. A boy pointing to 
his sketch said, "This is the Rhine River.*' "How many of you noticed 
how crooked the Rhine wasf' "Lake Constance is the Rhine enlarged." 
"Do like I do," "Say it like I do, 1 ' or usage to that effect. 

Misspelled words could be more easily and advantageously corrected 
than by having one pupil spell his entire list while the rest do nothing, 
even if they are expected to be paying attention. The teacher should 
not spend too much time erasing pupils' work for them. It is better 
that they learn to do it for themselves, as it is a meritorious habit to 
look after one's own trash in such matters. 

The present class is one which, it seems to me, might prove inter- 
esting to work with. They have some lessons in politeness yet to learn, 
yet in the main they seem to be very teachable. 

J. A. Strong, Second Year. 

Model School— Outline of Course of Study. 


Ages of Children, (3 to 7 years. 

Literature. Thirteen Fairy Tales. These are told by the teacher 
and reproduced by the children. 

Science. First Term, Fall. — Wild rose; pig; dog, fox, wolf, and 
bear; preparation of trees for winter; autumn leaves and buds found in 
their axils; nuts; peaches; plums; pears; grapes; migration of robins 
and blackbirds; birds that remain with us — the sparrow, owl, and crow: 
snow birds and chickadees. 

Science. Second Term, Winter. — Evergreen Trees — pines, spruces, 
cedars, and firs (cones collected in the fall); horse, donkey; mouse, rat, 
rabbit, and squirrel; hen, turkey, and pigeon; return of birds— blue- 
bird, bluejay, and robin. 

Science. Third Term, Spring. — Germination of seeds— lima beans, 
peas, corn, and morning-glory; trees— soft maple, elm, and larch; flow- 
ers — cherry, violet, tulip, marsh marigold, daisy and buttercup; birds — 
wren, meadow-lark, swallow, catbird, cowbird, woodpecker, and black- 

Reading. The Literature and Science Work is made the basis of 
the early reading. Harper's First Reader. Cyr's Primer. Stickney's 
First Reader. Todd and Powell's First Reader. 

Phonics and Word Building. All consonant sounds and the long 
and short vowels. New words built from familiar words found in the 
reading lesson. 

Spelling. Spelling by sound of words le rued in reading. The 
same words written in little books made for the purpose. 

Written Language;. Writing of stories derived from literature and 
science si udies. 

Number. Combinations through 10 learned. Tables of weights and 
measures, the measuring number not to exceed 10. 

Writing. Correct formation of all small letters, with proper combi- 
nation of satin; into familiar words. Writing of names of children. 

Drawing, Molding, and Sewing. Based on stories learned in litera- 
ture, and objects studied in science. 

54 Analysis of Course of Study. 

Color Work. 1. Cutting and pasting of fruits and vegetables studied 
in science. 2. Cutting and pasting of circles, squares, and triangles, 
forming borders and rosettes. 

General Exercises. 1. Songs and poems suitable for the season or 
occasion. 2. Marches and games. 3. Stories read to the children from 
the Kindergartens, Vols. I. -IV., Sara Wiltse's Kindergarten Stories, or 
longer stories than are found here, e.g., Little Lord Fauntleroy or 
Little Lame Prince. 

Opening Exercises. 

1. A passage of scripture suggested by the season or state of the 
weather; one connected in thought with the science study, or one con- 
taining a helpful moral truth. 

2. A morning prayer, sung with bowed heads. 

3. A song or poem bearing on the scripture passage quoted, or any 
bright morning song. 

4. One or two minutes given to observations made by the children, 
as the first appearance of the bluebird or robin, the birds' nest build- 
ing, the development of the buds on the trees, early flowers, etc. 

LITERATURE.— First Term, Fall. 

Material.— The Old Woman and Her Pig. The Three Bears. The 
Anxious Leaf. The Spruce Tree. The Chestnut Boy. The Christ 
Child and St. Antonio. Stories of Thanksgiving and Christmas. Poems 
of the leaves, nutting time, the frost, and Christmas. 

Second Term, Winter. 

The Fir Tree. The Little Match Seller. The Street Musicians. 
Nothing but Leaves. The Lion and the Mouse. Stories of Lincoln, 
Longfellow, and Washington. Poems of sun, moon, and stars; of frost 
and snow. Poems, "Little Fir Tree" and "March Wind," also "The 

Third Term, Spring. 

Little Red Riding Hood. The King of the Birds. The Story of 
the Morning-Glory Seed. The Pea Blossom. The Rainbow Fairies. 
The Discontented Pine Tree. Stories told about Decoration Day. and 
Fourth of July. May Day celebrated. Poems of birds, trees, and 
flowers. Bayard Taylor's "Night with a Wolf." 

Purpose, in teaching Fairy Stories. 

1. "They contain amoral educative power not elsewhere found," 
leading the child to form judgments of right and wrong, good and evil. 

2. " They prepare the child's mind for ideas." "The many scenes 
they reproduce, the ideas they call back, and the feelings they stir up, 
are the most fruitful ground for the seed corn of instruction." 

3. They elevate the imagination. 

4. They are classical, and develop in the child a taste for good lit- 

Method. — The following method for teaching Little Red Riding 
Hood (see collection of fairy stories in primary exhibit) will illustrate 
th<- method used in teaching all the Fairy Stories: 

Aim for whole story: I will tell you a story about a little girl that 
got into trouble by stopping to talk with a stranger when sent on an 

Illinois State Normal University. 55 

Preparation. — You may tell mo when she meets the stranger. Per- 
haps you won't know that he is a stranger. We'll see. I want you to 
tell me something first about a person who is no stranger to you — your 
grandmother. Then follows a pleasant chat with the children about 
their grandmothers — the kind things grandmother does for each, and 
the ways th>'y have of showing their love to her, the visits they make 
her, etc. This little girl who met a stranger had a grandmother who 
was very kind to her, and whom the little girl liked to make happy. 

Presentation. — Relate Sec. I. (To, "As she was going.") Children 
reproduce Section II. (To, "She stopped often.") 

What is this story about? (The children state the aim o p the whole 
story given the day before.) We will see if she meets the stranger to- 
day. Relate first sentence. A hand comes up, another, and another, 
and great excitement prevails. What is it, Stuart? "The wolf is the 
stranger." Are you afraid to have her meet him? Why? He did have 
a great mind to eat her up, but did not dare. Why not? Relate re- 
mainder of Sec. II. Have reproduced Section III. (To "By-and-by.") 

What is our story about? Has she met the stranger? Where was 
he when we left him? Where was the little girl? Is she in trouble yet? 
(referring to aim) We shall see if she stays out all day to-day. What 
would the little girl be likely to see here in the woods? Relate first 
sentence. Where is the wolf? Children 
relate the whole story as far as learned. Section IV. (Remainder of 

What is our story about? Aim related. Was she in trouble when 
we left her? We will see if she is happy to-day. Relate first sentence, 
the children tapping lightly on their desks to represent Red Riding 
Hood's knock. Who is in this room? Relate second sentence. What 
might little Red Riding Hood think when she heard this voice? Relate 
remainder of Sec. IV. Children reproduce the entire story. 

Now you may take these pencils and drawing paper. Ethel, Louise, 
and Mary may picture Red Riding Hood meeting the wolf. Ray, Morris, 
Lena, Ruth, and Clara may picture the wolf in grandmother's house. 
Charlie, Arthur, and Miller may picture Red Riding Hood at grand- 
mother's door. 


Material. — The Science work, so far as possible, is based on the 
Literature. Each season also furnishes a bountiful supply. 

First Term, Fall. 

Wild rose; pig; dog (as typical of its class), fox, wolf, and bear; 
preparation of trees for winter — autumn leaves and buds found in their 
axils; nuts; peaches, plums; pears; grapes; migration of the robins 
and blackbirds; birds that remain with us, viz.: the sparrow, owl, and 
crow; snowbirds and chickadees. 

Second Term, Winter. 

Evergreen trees — pines, spruces, cedars, and firs. (Cones collected 
in the fall); horse (as typical); donkey; cat, lion; mouse (typical), rat, 
rabbit, and squirrel; hen (typical), turkey, and pigeon. Return of 
birds — bluejay, bluebirds^ robin. 

50 Analysis of Coursk of Study. 

Third Term, Spring. 

Germination of seeds — lima beans, peas, corn, and morning-glory; 
trees — soft maple, elm, and larch, also cherry; flowers — violet, tulip, 
marsh marigold, daisy, and buttercup; birds — wren, meadow-lark, 
swallow, catbird, cowbird, blackbird, and woodpecker. 


Purpose. — 1. To make the children more observant. 2. To increase 
their self-reliance. 3. To lead the children to think. 4. To give them 
greater intelligence. 5. To increase their usefulness. 

Method. — Choose at first some familiar animal or plant typical of a 
class. 1. Ask the children to tell all they know about the object before 
taking it before the class. Quite likely some may think that they know 
all about it. The effect of such a beginning is to make the children 
doubtful about many things which they thoughtlessly supposed they 
knew. They then become more attentive, for they are anxious to learn 
when they find that there are things which they do not know. 2. Much 
depends on the proper statement of an aim. It should be so stated as 
to appeal strongly to the child's reasoning power. His feelings should 
be touched so that he responds in a manner similar to this: "Let us go to 
work, I believe we can find that out." Thus in studying the trees in 
the fall, this aim is stated: "Let us see if we can find out why the 
leaves do not stay on all winter.'" As soon as this aim is stated the 
child, finding a problem to work, begins on it at once. The reason that 
children do not think more is because we give them nothing to stimu- 
late thought. 3. The study is so guided that one point leads to the 
next, logically, and at the end of the study the child can make a con- 
nected story about it, covering all the points studied. 4. Function is 
largely dealt with in this study as suggested by the aim. "Why has 
the cat sharp claws?" rather than "How many claws has the cat?" 
5. Perfect freedom of expression is allowed the child. He may say 
"baby plant" instead of embryos. It means much more to him. 6. This 
being the imaginative period of the child's life, he is not only allowed 
but encouraged to dress the plants and animals in clothing woven by 
his faney. "The dandelion's hair is yellow, but when it gets old its hair 
turns gray. Here are some that are bald, too." 7. A feeling of kinship 
to animals and plants is encouraged. Children are led to regard 
them with a tender feeling akin to love. 


Material. — Stories derived from the literature and science work are 
made the basis for the early reading. Earper's First Reader. Cyr's 
Primer. Todd & Powell's First Header. Stick ney's First Reader. 

Purpose in using the science and literature stories as the basis 
for the early reading. Before the child can become a good reader 
there are a large number of forms — words, which he must master. This 
learning Of forms is new business to the child, and unless if can be 
made attractive is a severe tax. causing the child to tire of school life. 

Tin- child Is a thoughtful being, and likes to give expression to his 
thoughts. We take advantage of this and make thoughts — the child's 

own thoughts — a covering lor these forms. In this dress he masters 

Illinois State Normal University. 57 

them with pleasure and little fatigue. In the fore part of none of the 
First Readers are found really interesting thoughts. This part we 
bridge over by. the aid of the Science and Literature. 

Method. — 1. A classified list is made of all the words in the fore- 
part of the reader we wish to use- -this part which we wish to bridge 

2. The teacher wishes to pat her questions to the reading class in 
such a manner as to necessitate their use of these words. That is not a 
very hard task. For example, the class in Science have been studying 
the toad. The teacher wishes to develop a set of sentences taken from 
their study of the toad. She asks: "What did you see this morning in 
a cup, John?" John replies, "I saw some eggs in a cup." (These 
words all are found in Harper's First Reader.) "We will let the chalk- 
say what John said." (Teacher writes the story at the board.) As soon 
as all know this story as a whole, the teacher asks, "Were they hens' 
eggs?"' What then? "They were toads' eggs." This is taught as a 
whole and the first sentence reviewed. These sentences are followed by 
others, developed by questioning the children. The eggs are round. 
They are in a long string. A baby toad came from an egg. It swims 
as a fish swims. (With the exception of toad these words are all in 
Harper's Readers.) They now know the sentences. Taking the first 
sentence, the words are learned from it by their position in the sentence. 

3. These words are placed in columns and learned by reference to 
like ones in position in the sentence. Then the child masters the word 
so that he call it without reference the sentence. 

4. The words learned are placed in new connections, forming new 
sentences. They get the thought from these and express it — begin to 
read independently. 


Material. — 1. The consonant sounds and the long and short vowels. 
2. Known words from which new words are formed. 

Purpose. — To enable the child to master words by himself and be- 
come an independent reader. 

Method. — The teacher, for a number of days before beginning the 
phonic work, breaks some of the simple words into their component 
parts by speaking them very slowly. The children begin to see that a 
word, as well as a sentence, " falls apart." Taking the word cup from 
the first sentence the children are taught the sounds, c- u - p. Other 
words that they have learned are also broken up in the same way and 
the sounds taught. Then from these sounds new words are constructed, 
always using a known word for the basis; e.g , the word fish, in the last 
sentence given by the children, is decapitated and only ish remains; d 
is writtep on the board and sounded, then moved up in front of ish. 
We now have d-ish or dish. W-ish gives wish. 


The children spell by sound the words learned in Reading. After- 
ward these same words are written by them in the little books made for 
the purpose. 

Illinois State Normal University. 59 


Material. — Sentences derived from the Literature and Science. 

Purpose. — 1. To help the children to a free expression of their 
thoughts in writing. 2. To teach the use of capital letters at the be- 
ginning of sentences and in proper nouns; the use of the period and 
question mark at the close of a sentence; indentation, and proper mar- 

Method. — The teacher writes out a short, connected story, similar 
to the one in Reading, given above, in which the words are all familiar 
to the child. She asks a question and develops the first sentence. These 
sentences are previously written by her on spaced manilla paper. Now 
each child being provided with a sentence, pen, and paper, writes the 
story on practice paper or in Bond's Staff Ruled Copy Book, No. 3. For 
the first few weeks these copies are put on the board and the child 
copies them there. Later, no spacing is necessary. 


Additions of numbers, sums not to exceed ten; Subtractions, minu- 
end no greater than ten; Products, up to ten; Division, the dividend not 
greater than ten. All fractional parts of the digital numbers, providing 
these parts be integers. Tables of weights and measures, no greater 
measuring number than ten. A great proportion of this work is done 
with objects, but before the end of the year, they recite the tables with- 
out objects and know combinations thoroughly. To test them in this 
respect charts are made. 


Material. — Objects and stories taken from the Literature and 

Purpose. — 1. To teach the children to express their thoughts in 
other ways than through either spoken or written language. 2. To 
make them more observant. 3. To lead to greater accuracy in copy- 
ing from objects. 4. To develop habits of neatness. 5. To render the 
fingers skillful, as in manipulating the clay. 

Method. — 1. In the Literature Class the children draw the stories 
they study, without any interference on the part of the teacher. In 
the Drawing Class, good pictures of what the children tried to express, 
are placed on the board by the teacher, and they are helped to a better 
expression of what was in their minds. In Sewing, the children are led 
to draw their pictures, prick them, then sew, independent of help. In 
the sewing exhibited the pictures were drawn by the teacher. The 
children did the pricking and sewing. In Molding, the children 
have an object before them, as an orange, which they imitate as closely 
as possible in shape and markings. 2. Moldings of forms based on 
sphere, cube, oblong, square and triangular prism, and hemisphere. 


Material. — 1. Representations in colored papers of fruits and vege- 
tables studied in science. 2. Circles, squares, and triangles of colored 
papers to be made into borders and rosettes. 

00 Analysis of Course of Study. 

Purpose. — 1. To teach children to recognize the primary and sec- 
ondary colors. 2. To make pleasing combinations in color and form. 

Method. — 1. For fruit work. — The child is seated at a table and 
given a lemon. He represents it on m anil la paper. When he has a 
good pattern of it drawn, he cuts it from the paper and takes his lemon 
to the box of colored papers, where he matches it in color. Then he 
lays his pattern on the wrong side of this, marks it out, and afterward 
cuts it out. Next he pastes it on a square or rectangular piece of card- 
board. 2. The child is provided with circles, squares, or triangles in col- 
ored paper and told to make them into a pretty border. If the design is a 
good one, he is allowed to paste it. If he shows a lack of good taste, 
the teacher suggests changes, and the child produces a better border. 
The rosettes are laid in the same way. Originality in design is en- 

General Exercises. 

1. Songs and poems appropriate to the season and occasion. (See 
list of songs and collections of poems in exhibit.) 

2. Marches and games. 

3. Stories from Kindergartens, Vols. I., II., III., and IV., and Sara 
Wiltse's "Kindergarten Stories," read to the children. Sometimes a 
long story is read, a little being given each day: e.g., "Little Lord 
Fauntleroy," or "Little Lame Prince.'" 

Work for the Second Year. 

See "Outline of Second Grade Work' 1 in Primary Exhibit. 

Opening Exercises. — Brief devotional exercises, consisting of the 
Lord's Prayer, Beatitudes, selected Psalms, verses suited to the sea- 
sons, and songs. 

General 'Exercises : — Tales, stories, poems, and songs, suited to the 
season, and in connection with other subjects. Songs, games, march- 
ing, and calisthenics. 


First Term. — Seven Little Sisters; Christmas Stories; Thanksgiving 
Stories; Poems for Fall Flowers. 

Second Term. — Each and All; Poems from Longfellow; Story of Lin- 
coln; Myths from Hiawatha; Story of Washington; Moon Stories. 

Third Term. — First half of Robinson Crusoe; Poems of Spring, 
Flowers, and Birds. 


First Term. — Cocoa nut, Bamboo, Rice, Tea, Silkworm, Bee, Ant, 
Monkey, Parrot. Camel. Ostrich, Chamois, Squirrel, Reindeer, Polar 

Second Term. — Seal, Whale, Owl, Frost, Snow. Rain, Hail, Willow, 
Lilac, Peach Buds. 

Illinois State Nokmal University. 61 

Third Term. — Germination of Bean, Squash, Sweet Pea, Norway 
Maple, Box Elder, Balm of Gilead, Violet, Buttercup, Spring Beauty, 
Dandelion, Thrush, Oriole, Blue Jay. (All material for the year is 
taken from the Literature, or furnished by the season.) 


First Term. — Barnes' Second Reader. For supplementary, Parker's 

Second Term. — Stickney's Second. Easy Steps, for supplementary. 

Third, Term. — Harper's Second. Supplementary, Nature Stories by 
Bass or Todd, and Powell's Second. 


Combinations to 30; Additions and Subtractions to 100; Roman Nu- 
merals to 30. Begin Cropsey's Elementary Arithmetic; Addition and 


Capital letters and a review of the small letters. Penholding and 


Written Spelling each day; Words taken from the Reading or other 


Word-building continued; New words in the Reading spelled by 
sound; Making of long and short vowels. 


Short compositions written upon the subjects studied in Literature 
or Science. 


Form Study. — Review sphere, cube, cylinder, hemisphere, and 
prisms; study ellipsoid, ovoid, and vase forms. Clay. — Model objects 
based on the forms studied; also objects in connection with other sub- 
jects. Drawing. — Draw objects studied in connection with Drawing 
and other subjects. Color. — Water colors used in painting fruits and 
flowers; colored papers for simple rosettes and crosses. 

Work for the Third Year. 

For more definite work, see "Outlines for Third Grade" in Primary 

Opening Exercises. — Brief devotional exercises, consisting of verses 
from the bible appropriate to the season, hymns, prayers in song and 
verse, and morning songs. 

62 Analysis op Course of Study. 

General Exercises. — Talks, stories, poems, and songs suited to the 
season or other work, Marches, games, and calisthenics. 


First Term. — Complete Robinson Crusoe; Story of Thanksgiving; 
Poems for Autumn and Winter. 

Second Term. — The Golden Touch; The Miraculous Pitcher; The 
Three Golden Apples; The Paradise of Children; Story of Washington, 
Lincoln, and Longfellow; Myths from Hiawatha; Poems from Long- 

Third Term. — The Pomegranate Seeds; The Golden Fleece; The 
Pygmies; Circe's Palace; Study of the Indian; Poems and Legends of 


First Term. — Fall flowers, fruits, vegetables, seeds, grains, and the 
preparations for winter. 

Second Term. — Wool, leather, furs, fur-bearing animals, cotton, 
silk, linen, straw, and rubber. Buds. 

Third Term. — White Ash, Tulip Tree, Red Bird, Birch, Violet, Cro- 
cus, Narcissus, Lily of the Valley, Bobolink, and a review of the com- 
mon birds. 


First Term. — Barnes's Third Reader. For Supplementary, Scud- 
der's Folk Stories. 

Second Term. — Complete Barnes's Third and begin Harper's Third. 
For supplementary, complete Folk Stories and begin Stickney's Third. 

Third Term. — Complete Harper's Third, also Stickney's Third. 
Throughout the year the pupils read selections on the board taken 
from the Literature and Science. 


A review of the second year's work. Cropsey's Elementary Arith- 
metic; combinations through 100; Roman Numerals to 100; concrete 
work with picturing of problems; multiplication tables; Addition, Sub- 
traction, Multiplication, and Short Division. Cook and Cropsey's Ele- 
mentary Arithmetic to Part II. 


First Term. — Food Products and Clothing. 

Second Term. — Position, direction, cardinal points, distance, scale; 
map of the school room, school yard, and vicinity. 

Third Term. — Buildings and Materials; Home Government; Local 
industries; Roads and Bridges; Town and Public Buildings; Local 
Commerce; Local Surface Features.